Isa 43:1-28. A Succession of
Arguments Wherein Israel May Be Assured that, Notwithstanding Their
Perversity towards God (Isa 42:25), He Will
Deliver and Restore Them.
1. But now—notwithstanding God's past
just judgments for Israel's sins.
created—not only in the general sense,
but specially created as a peculiar people unto Himself (Isa 43:7, 15, 21; Isa 44:2, 21, 24). So believers, "created in Christ
2:10), "a peculiar people"
redeemed—a second argument why they
should trust Him besides creation. The Hebrew means to
ransom by a price paid in lieu of the captives (compare Isa 43:3). Babylon was to be the ransom in
this case, that is, was to be destroyed, in order that they might be
delivered; so Christ became a curse, doomed to death, that we might be
called … by … name—not
merely "called" in general, as in Isa 42:6; 48:12; 51:2, but designated as His own
peculiar people (compare Isa 45:3, 4; Ex 32:1; 33:12;
2. rivers … not overflow thee—so
in passing Jordan, though at its "overflow," when its
"swellings" were especially dangerous (Jos 3:15; Jer 12:5).
waters … fire—a proverbial
phrase for the extremest perils (Ps 66:12; also Ps 138:7). Literally fulfilled at the Red Sea
14:21, 22), and in the case
of the three youths cast into the fiery furnace for conscience' sake
3. Egypt for thy ransom—Either Egypt or
Israel must perish; God chose that Egypt, though so much more mighty,
should be destroyed, in order that His people might be delivered; thus
Egypt stood, instead of Israel, as a kind of "ransom." The
Hebrew, kopher, means properly "that with which anything is
overlaid," as the pitch with which the ark was overlaid; hence that
which covers over sins, an atonement. Nebuchadnezzar had subdued
Egypt, Ethiopia (Hebrew, Cush), and Saba (descended from Cush,
Ge 10:7, probably Meroe of Ethiopia, a
great island formed by the Astaboras and the Nile, conquered by
Cambyses, successor of Cyrus). Cyrus received these from God with the
rest of the Babylonian dominions, in consideration of his being about
to deliver Israel. However, the reference may be to the three years'
war in which Sargon overcame these countries, and so had his attention
diverted from Israel (see on Isa 20:1) [Vitringa]. But the reference is probably more
general, namely, to all the instances in which Jehovah
sacrificed mighty heathen nations, when the safety of Israel required
4. Since—All along from the beginning;
for there was never a time when Israel was not Jehovah's people. The
apodosis should be at, "I will give." "Since ever thou wast precious in
My sight, honorable, and that I loved thee, I will give," &c.
[Maurer]. Gesenius, as English Version, takes "Since"
to mean, "Inasmuch as." If the apodosis be as in English
Version, "Since thou wast precious" will refer to the time when God
called His people out of Egypt, manifesting then first the love which
He had from everlasting towards them (Jer 31:3; Ho 11:1); "honorable" and "loved," refer to
outward marks of honor and love from God.
men … people—other
nations for thee (so Isa 43:3).
thy life—thy person.
5. (De 30:3).
seed—descendants scattered in all
lands. Vitringa understands it of the
spiritual "seed" of the Church produced by mystical
regeneration: for the expression is, "bring," not "bring back." This
sense is perhaps included, but not to the exclusion of the literal
Israel's restoration (Jer 30:10, 11; Am 9:9; Zec
6. Give up—namely, My people.
sons … daughters—The feminine
joined to the masculine expresses the complete totality of
anything (Zec 9:17).
7. called by my name—belong to Israel,
whose people, as sons of God, bear the name of their Father (Isa 44:5;
for my glory—(Isa 43:21;
8. Solemn challenge given by God to the
nations to argue with Him the question of His superiority to their
idols, and His power to deliver Israel (Isa 41:1).
blind people—the Gentiles, who also,
like Israel (Isa 42:19),
are blind (spiritually), though having eyes; that is, natural
faculties, whereby they might know God (Ro 1:20, 21) [Lowth].
Or else, the Jews [Vitringa].
9. who … can declare this—who
among the idolatrous soothsayers hath predicted this; that is,
as to Cyrus being the deliverer of Israel?
former—predictions, as in Isa 42:9 [Maurer].
Or, things that shall first come to pass (see on Isa 41:21, 22) [Barnes].
let them bring forth their
witnesses—as I do mine (Isa 43:10).
justified—declared veracious in their
or—rather, "and"; let men hear their
prediction and say, from the event, It is verified (see on Isa 41:26).
10. Ye—the Jews, to whom I have given
predictions, verified by the event; and in delivering whom I have so
often manifested My power (see Isa 43:3, 4; Isa 44:8).
and my servant—that is, the whole
Jewish people (Isa 41:8).
formed—before I existed none of
the false gods were formed. "Formed" applies to the idols, not
to God. Re
1:11 uses the same language
to prove the Godhead of Jesus, as Isaiah here to prove the
Godhead of Jehovah.
saviour—temporally, from Babylon:
eternally, from sin and hell (Ho 13:4; Ac 4:12). The same titles as are applied to God
are applied to Jesus.
12. declared—predicted the future (Isa 41:22,
saved—the nation, in past times of
showed—namely, that I was God.
when … no strange god,
&c.—to whom the predictions uttered by Me could be assigned.
"Strange" means foreign, introduced from abroad.
13. before—literally, from the time
of the first existence of day.
let—Old English for "hinder" (Isa 14:27). Rather, translate, "undo it"
14. sent—namely, the Medes and Persians
10:5, 6; 13:3).
brought down—"made to go down" to the
42:10), in order to escape
the impending destruction of Babylon.
nobles—rather, "fugitives," namely,
the foreigners who sojourned in populous Babylon (Isa 13:14), distinct from the Chaldeans [Maurer].
whose cry is in the ships—exulting in
their ships with the joyous sailors—cry, boastingly; their joy
heretofore in their ships contrasts sadly with their present panic in
fleeing to them (Isa 22:2; Zep 2:15). Babylon was on the Euphrates, which
was joined to the Tigris by a canal, and flowed into the Persian Gulf.
Thus it was famed for ships and commerce until the Persian monarchs, to
prevent revolt or invasion, obstructed navigation by dams across the
Tigris and Euphrates.
15. creator of Israel—(Isa 43:1).
your—proved to be specially
yours by delivering you.
16, 17. Allusion to the deliverance of Israel
and overthrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, the standing illustration of
God's unchanging character towards His people (Ex 14:21, 22,
17. the power—the might of the enemies
host, every mighty warrior.
they shall lie down together—as
Pharaoh's army sank "together" in a watery grave.
18. So wonderful shall be God's future
interpositions in your behalf, that all past ones shall be forgotten in
comparison. Plainly the future restoration of Israel is the event
ultimately meant. Thus the "former things" are such events as the
destruction of Sennacherib and the return from Babylon. "Things of old"
are events still more ancient, the deliverance from Egypt and at the
Red Sea, and entry into Canaan [Vitringa].
19. new—unprecedented in its wonderful
character (Isa 42:9).
spring forth—as a germinating herb: a
beautiful image of the silent but certain gradual growth
of events in God's providence (Mr 4:26-28).
way in … wilderness—just as
Israel in the wilderness, between the Red Sea and Canaan, was guided,
and supplied with water by Jehovah; but the "new" deliverance shall be
attended with manifestations of God's power and love, eclipsing the old
(compare Isa 41:17-19). "I will open a way, not merely in the
Red Sea, but in the wilderness of the whole world; and not merely one
river shall gush out of the rock, but many, which shall refresh, not
the bodies as formerly, but the souls of the thirsty, so that the
prophecy shall be fulfilled: 'With joy shall ye draw water out of the
wells of salvation'" [Jerome]. "A way"
often stands for the true religion (Ac 9:2; 18:26). "Rivers" express the influences
of the Holy Spirit (Joh 7:37-39). Israel's literal restoration
hereafter is included, as appears by comparing Isa 11:15, 16.
20. beast—image of idolaters, defiled
with blood and pollutions, dwelling like dragons, &c., in the
wastes of Gentile ignorance: even they shall be converted. Or else,
literally, such copious floods of water shall be given by God in the
desert, that the very beasts shall (in poetic language) praise the Lord
dragons—"serpents," or else jackals
(see on Isa 13:22).
21. This people—namely, The same as "My
people, My chosen" (see Isa 43:1, 7; Ps 102:18).
my praise—on account of the many and
great benefits conferred on them, especially their restoration.
22. But—Israel, however, is not
to think that these divine favors are due to their own piety towards
God. So the believer (Tit 3:5).
weary of me—(Am 8:5, 6; Mal
1:13), though "I have
not wearied thee" (Isa 43:23),
yet "thou hast been weary of Me."
23. small cattle—rather, the "lamb" or
"kid," required by the law to be daily offered to God (Ex 29:38; Nu
sacrifices—offered any way; whereas
the Hebrew for "holocaust," or "burnt offering," denotes that
which ascends as an offering consumed by fire.
I have not caused thee to serve—that
is, to render the the service of a slave (Mt
11:30; Ro 8:15; 1Jo 4:18; 5:3).
offering—bloodless (Le 2:1, 2).
wearied—antithetical to Isa 43:22, "Thou hast been weary of Me."
Though God in the law required such offerings, yet not so as to "weary"
the worshipper, or to exact them in cases where, as in the Babylonish
captivity, they were physically unable to render them; God did not
require them, save in subordination to the higher moral duties (Ps 50:8-14; 51:16, 17; Mic 6:3, 6-8).
24. bought—for "sweet cane" (aromatic
calamus) was not indigenous to Palestine, but had to be bought
from foreign countries (Jer 6:20). It
was used among the Hebrews to make the sacred ointment (Ex 30:23). It is often offered as a mark of
filled—satiated (Jer 31:14). God deigns to use human language to
adapt Himself to human modes of thought.
made me to serve—though "I have not
caused thee to serve" (Isa 43:23). Our sin made the Son of God to become
"a servant." He served to save us from servile bondage
(Php 2:7; Heb 2:14, 15).
wearied me—Though I have "not wearied
43:23; see Isa 1:14).
25. I, even I—the God against whom your
sin is committed, and who alone can and will pardon. (Isa 44:22).
for mine own sake—(Isa 48:9, 11). How abominable a thing sin is,
since it is against such a God of grace! "Blotted out" is an image from
an account-book, in which, when a debt is paid, the charge is
cancelled or blotted out.
not remember … sins—(Jer 31:34). When God forgives, He forgets;
that is, treats the sinner as if He had forgotten his sins.
26. Put me in remembrance—Remind Me of
every plea which thou hast to urge before Me in thy defense. Image from
a trial (Isa 1:18; 41:1). Our strongest plea is to remind God of
His own promises. So Jacob did at Mahanaim and Peniel (Ge 32:9, 12). God, then, instead of "pleading
against us with His great power," "will put His strength" in us (Job 23:6); we thus become "the Lord's
remembrancers" (Isa 62:6,
Margin). "Declare God's righteousness" vindicated in
Jesus Christ "that thou mayest be justified" (Ro 3:26; compare Isa 20:1-6, and Ps 143:2).
27. first father—collectively for "most
ancient ancestors," as the parallelism ("teachers") proves
[Maurer]. Or, thy chief religious
ministers or priests [Gesenius]. Adam, the common father of all
nations, can hardly be meant here, as it would have been irrelevant to
mention his sin in an address to the Jews specially.
Abraham is equally out of place here, as he is everywhere cited as
an example of faithfulness, not of "sin." However, taking the passage
in its ultimate application to the Church at large, Adam may be
between God and man, the priests (Job 33:23; Mal 2:7).
28. profaned the princes—(Ps 89:39; La
2:2, 6, 7). I have esteemed,
or treated, them as persons not sacred. I have left them to suffer the
same treatment as the common people, stripped of their holy office and
princes of the sanctuary—"governors
of" it (1Ch
24:5); directing its holy
curse—Hebrew, cherim, a "solemn
anathema," or "excommunication."
reproaches—(Ps 123:3, 4).