1. common—or else more
literally,—"great upon man," falls heavily upon man.
2. for his soul—that is, his
God giveth him not power to eat—This
distinguishes him from the "rich" man in Ec 5:19. "God hath given" distinguishes him also
from the man who got his wealth by "oppression" (Ec 5:8, 10).
stranger—those not akin, nay, even
hostile to him (Jer 51:51; La 5:2; Ho 7:9). He seems to have it in his "power" to
do as he will with his wealth, but an unseen power gives him up to his
own avarice: God wills that he should toil for "a stranger" (Ec 2:26), who has found favor in God's
3. Even if a man (of this character) have very
many (equivalent to "a hundred," 2Ki 10:1) children, and not have a "stranger" as
his heir (Ec
6:2), and live long ("days of
years" express the brevity of life at its best, Ge 47:9), yet enjoy no real "good" in
life, and lie unhonored, without "burial," at death (2Ki 9:26, 35), the embryo is better than he. In
the East to be without burial is the greatest degradation. "Better the
fruit that drops from the tree before it is ripe than that left to hang
on till rotten" [Henry].
4. he—rather "it," "the untimely birth."
So "its," not "his name."
with vanity—to no purpose; a type of
the driftless existence of him who makes riches the chief good.
darkness—of the abortive; a type of
the unhonored death and dark future beyond the grave of the
5. this—yet "it has more rest
than" the toiling, gloomy miser.
6. If the miser's length of "life" be thought
to raise him above the abortive, Solomon answers that long life,
without enjoying real good, is but lengthened misery, and riches cannot
exempt him from going whither "all go." He is fit neither for life, nor
death, nor eternity.
7. man—rather, "the man," namely, the
6:3-6). For not all
men labor for the mouth, that is, for selfish gratification.
appetite—Hebrew, "the soul."
The insatiability of the desire prevents that which is the only end
proposed in toils, namely, self-gratification; "the man" thus gets no
"good" out of his wealth (Ec 6:3).
8. For—"However" [Maurer]. The "for" means (in contrast to the
insatiability of the miser), For what else is the advantage
which the wise man hath above the fool?"
What—advantage, that is, superiority,
above him who knows not how to walk uprightly
hath the poor who knoweth to walk before the
living?—that is, to use and enjoy life aright (Ec 5:18, 19), a cheerful, thankful, godly
9. Answer to the question in Ec 6:8. This is the advantage:
Better is the sight of the eyes—the
wise man's godly enjoyment of present seen blessings
than the (fool's)
wandering—literally, walking (Ps 73:9), of the desire, that is, vague,
insatiable desires for what he has not (Ec 6:7; Heb 13:5).
this—restless wandering of desire, and
not enjoying contentedly the present (1Ti 6:6, 8).
10. Part II begins here. Since man's toils are
vain, what is the chief good? (Ec 6:12). The answer is contained in the rest of
That which hath been—man's various
is named already—not only has existed,
3:15, but has received its
just name, "vanity," long ago,
and it is known that it—vanity
is man—Hebrew, "Adam,"
equivalent to man "of red dust," as his Creator appropriately
named him from his frailty.
neither may he contend, &c.—(Ro 9:20).
11. "Seeing" that man cannot escape from the
"vanity," which by God's "mighty" will is inherent in earthly things,
and cannot call in question God's wisdom in these dispensations
(equivalent to "contend," &c.),
what is man the better—of these vain
things as regards the chief good? None whatever.
12. For who knoweth, &c.—The ungodly
know not what is really "good" during life, nor "what shall be after
them," that is, what will be the event of their undertakings (Ec 3:22;
8:7). The godly might be
tempted to "contend with God" (Ec 6:10) as to His dispensations; but they
cannot fully know the wise purposes served by them now and hereafter.
Their sufferings from the oppressors are more really good for them than
cloudless prosperity; sinners are being allowed to fill up their
measure of guilt. Retribution in part vindicates God's ways even now.
The judgment shall make all clear. In Ec 7:1-29, he states what is good, in answer to