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Pr 19:1-29.

1. (Compare Pr 28:6). "Rich" for fool here. Integrity is better than riches (Pr 15:16, 17; 16:8).

2. The last illustrates the first clause. Rashness, the result of ignorance, brings trouble.

3. perverteth … way—turns him back from right (Pr 13:6; Jas 1:13); and he blames God for his failures.

4. (Compare Pr 14:20). Such facts are often adduced with implied disapprobation.

5. Compare Pr 19:9, where perish explains not escape here (compare Ps 88:9, 10).

8. (Compare Margin; Pr 15:32).

loveth … soul—or, "himself," which he evinces by regarding his best interests.

keepeth—or, "regards."

10. (Compare Pr 17:7). The fool is incapable of properly using pleasure as knowledge, yet for him to have it is less incongruous than the undue elevation of servants. Let each abide in his calling (1Co 7:20).

11. (Compare Pr 14:29; 16:32). This inculcation of a forgiving spirit shows that true religion is always the same (Mt 5:22-24).

12. (Compare Pr 16:14, 15; 20:2). A motive to submission to lawful authority.

13. calamity—literally, "calamities," varied and many.

continual dropping—a perpetual annoyance, wearing out patience.

14. A contrast of men's gifts and God's, who, though author of both blessings, confers the latter by His more special providence.

and—or, "but," implying that the evils of Pr 19:13 are only avoided by His care.

15. a deep sleep—a state of utter indifference.

idle soul—or, "person" (compare Pr 10:4; 12:24).

16. (Compare Pr 10:17; 13:13).

despiseth … ways—opposed to keeping or observing, neglects (Pr 16:17) (as unworthy of regard) his moral conduct.

17. (Compare Pr 14:21; Ps 37:26).

hath pity—shown by acts (compare Margin).

18. (Compare Pr 13:24; 23:13).

let not … spare—literally, "do not lift up thy soul" (Ps 24:4; 25:1), that is, do not desire to his death; a caution to passionate parents against angry chastisement.

19. Repeated efforts of kindness are lost on ill-natured persons.

20. (Compare Pr 13:18-20).

latter end—(Pr 5:11). In youth prepare for age.

21. (Compare Pr 16:1, 9; Ps 33:10, 11). The failure of man's devices is implied.

22. desire—that is, to do good, indicates a kind disposition (Pr 11:23); and the poor thus affected are better than liars, who say and do not.

23. The fear … life—(Compare Pr 3:2).

abide—or, "remain contented" (1Ti 4:8).

not visited with evil—(Pr 10:3; Ps 37:25), as a judgment, in which sense visit is often used (Ps 89:32; Jer 6:15).

24. bosom—literally, a wide dish in which the hand was plunged in eating (Mt 26:23). Compare Pr 26:15, the sentiment expressed with equal irony and less exaggeration.

25. Such is the benefit of reproof; even the simple profit, much more the wise.

26. Unfilial conduct often condemned (Pr 17:21-25; 20:20; De 21:18, 21).

27. Avoid whatever leads from truth.

28. ungodly witness—(Compare Margin), one false by bad principles (compare Pr 6:12).

scorneth judgment—sets at naught the dictates of justice.

devoureth—literally, "swalloweth," as something delightful.

29. Their punishment is sure, fixed, and ready (compare Pr 3:34; 10:13).

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