1. Why is it that, seeing that the times of
punishment (Eze 30:3;
"time" in the same sense) are not hidden from the Almighty, they who
know Him (His true worshippers, Job 18:21) do not see His days (of vengeance;
Joe 1:15; 2Pe 3:10)? Or, with Umbreit less simply, making the parallel clauses
more nicely balanced, Why are not times of punishment hoarded up ("laid
21:19; appointed) by
the Almighty? that is, Why are they not so appointed as that man may
now see them? as the second clause shows. Job does not doubt that they
are appointed: nay, he asserts it (Job 21:30); what he wishes is that God would let
all now see that it is so.
2-24. Instances of the wicked doing the worst
deeds with seeming impunity (Job 24:2-24).
landmarks—boundaries between different
pastures (De 19:14; Pr 22:28).
3. pledge—alluding to Job 22:6. Others really do, and with impunity,
that which Eliphaz falsely charges the afflicted Job with.
4. Literally, they push the poor out of their
road in meeting them. Figuratively, they take advantage of them by
force and injustice (alluding to the charge of Eliphaz, Job 22:8; 1Sa
poor—in spirit and in circumstances
hide—from the injustice of their
oppressors, who have robbed them of their all and driven them into
unfrequented places (Job 20:19; 30:3-6; Pr 28:28).
5. wild asses—(Job 11:12). So Ishmael is called a "wild ass-man";
Hebrew (Ge 16:12).
These Bedouin robbers, with the unbridled wildness of the ass of the
desert, go forth thither. Robbery is their lawless "work." The desert,
which yields no food to other men, yields food for the robber and his
children by the plunder of caravans.
rising betimes—In the East travelling
is begun very early, before the heat comes on.
6. Like the wild asses (Job 24:5) they (these Bedouin robbers) reap
(metaphorically) their various grain (so the Hebrew for "corn"
means). The wild ass does not let man pile his mixed provender up in a
stable (Isa 30:24);
so these robbers find their food in the open air, at one time in the
24:5), at another in the
the vintage of the
wicked—Hebrew, "the wicked gather the vintage"; the
vintage of robbery, not of honest industry. If we translate "belonging
to the wicked," then it will imply that the wicked alone have
vineyards, the "pious poor" (Job 24:4) have none. "Gather" in Hebrew,
is "gather late." As the first clause refers to the early
harvest of corn, so the second to the vintage late in
understands it of the Bedouin robbers, who are quite regardless of the
comforts of life, "They pass the night naked, and uncovered," &c.
But the allusion to Job 22:6,
makes the English Version preferable (see on Job 24:10). Frost is not uncommon at night in those
8. They—the plundered travellers.
embrace the rock—take refuge under it
9. from the breast—of the widowed
mother. Kidnapping children for slaves. Here Job passes from wrongs in
the desert to those done among the habitations of men.
pledge—namely, the garment of the poor
debtor, as Job 24:10
10. (See on Job 22:6).
24:7 a like sin is alluded
to: but there he implies open robbery of garments in the desert;
here, the more refined robbery in civilized life, under the name
of a "pledge." Having stripped the poor, they make them besides labor
in their harvest-fields and do not allow them to satisfy their hunger
with any of the very corn which they carry to the heap. Worse treatment
than that of the ox, according to De 25:4. Translate: "they (the poor laborers)
hungering carry the sheaves" [Umbreit].
11. Which—"They," the poor, "press the
oil within their wall"; namely, not only in the open fields (Job 24:10), but also in the wall-enclosed
vineyards and olive gardens of the oppressor (Isa 5:5). Yet they are not allowed to quench
their "thirst" with the grapes and olives. Here, thirsty; Job 24:10, hungry.
12. Men—rather, "mortals" (not the
common Hebrew for "men"); so the Masoretic vowel points read as
English Version. But the vowel points are modern. The true
reading is, "The dying," answering to "the wounded" in the next clause,
so Syriac. Not merely in the country (Job 24:11), but also in the city there are
oppressed sufferers, who cry for help in vain. "From out of the
city"; that is, they long to get forth and be free outside of it (Ex 1:11;
wounded—by the oppressor (Eze 30:24).
layeth not folly—takes no account of
(by punishing) their sin ("folly" in Scripture; Job 1:22). This is the gist of the whole previous
list of sins (Ac 17:30).
Umbreit with Syriac reads by
changing a vowel point, "Regards not their supplication."
13. So far as to openly committed sins; now,
those done in the dark. Translate: "There are those among them (the
wicked) who rebel," &c.
light—both literal and figurative
(Joh 3:19, 20; Pr 2:13).
paths thereof—places where the light
14. with the light—at early dawn, while
still dark, when the traveller in the East usually sets out, and the
poor laborer to his work; the murderous robber lies in wait then (Ps 10:8).
is as a thief—Thieves in the
East steal while men sleep at night; robbers murder at early
dawn. The same man who steals at night, when light dawns not only robs,
but murders to escape detection.
15. (Pr 7:9; Ps 10:11).
disguiseth—puts a veil on.
16. dig through—Houses in the East are
generally built of sun-dried mud bricks (so Mt 6:19). "Thieves break through," literally,
"dig through" (Eze 12:7).
had marked—Rather, as in Job 9:7, "They shut themselves up" (in their
houses); literally, "they seal up."
for themselves—for their own ends,
namely, to escape detection.
17. They shrink from the "morning" light, as
much as other men do from the blackest darkness ("the shadow of
if one know—that is, recognize them.
Rather, "They know well (are familiar with) the terrors of," &c.
[Umbreit]. Or, as Maurer, "They know the terrors of (this) darkness,"
namely, of morning, the light, which is as terrible to them as darkness
("the shadow of death") is to other men.
18-21. In these verses Job quotes the opinions
of his adversaries ironically; he quoted them so before (Job 21:7-21). In Job 24:22-24, he states his own observation as
the opposite. You say, "The sinner is swift, that is, swiftly passes
away (as a thing floating) on the surface of the waters" (Ec 11:1; Ho
is cursed—by those who witness their
beholdeth not—"turneth not to";
figuratively, for He cannot enjoy his pleasant possessions (Job
the way of the vineyards—including his
fields, fertile as vineyards; opposite to "the way of the desert."
19. Arabian image; melted snow, as contrasted
with the living fountain, quickly dries up in the sunburnt sand, not
leaving a trace behind (Job 6:16-18). The Hebrew is terse and
elliptical to express the swift and utter destruction of the godless;
(so) "the grave—they have sinned!"
20. The womb—The very mother that bare
him, and who is the last to "forget" the child that sucked her
49:15), shall dismiss him
from her memory (Job 18:17; Pr 10:7). The worm shall suck, that is,
"feed sweetly" on him as a delicate morsel (Job 21:33).
wickedness—that is, the wicked;
abstract for concrete (as Job 5:16).
as a tree—utterly (Job 19:10); Umbreit
better, "as a staff." A broken staff is the emblem of irreparable ruin
(Isa 14:5; Ho 4:12).
21. The reason given by the friends why the
sinner deserves such a fate.
barren—without sons, who might have
widow—without a husband to support
22-25. Reply of Job to the opinion of the
friends. Experience proves the contrary. Translate: "But He (God)
prolongeth the life of (literally, draweth out at length; Ps 36:10, Margin) the mighty with His
(God's) power. He (the wicked) riseth up (from his sick bed) although
he had given up hope of (literally, when he no longer believed in)
23. Literally, "He (God omitted, as often;
3:20; Ec 9:9; reverentially)
giveth to him (the wicked, to be) in safety, or security."
yet—Job means, How strange that God
should so favor them, and yet have His eyes all the time open to their
wicked ways (Pr 15:3; Ps 73:4)!
24. Job repeats what he said (Job 21:13), that sinners die in exalted positions,
not the painful and lingering death we might expect, but a quick and
easy death. Join "for a while" with "are gone," not as English
Version. Translate: "A moment—and they are no more! They are
brought low, as all (others) gather up their feet to die" (so the
Hebrew of "are taken out of the way"). A natural death (Ge 49:33).
ears of corn—in a ripe and full age,
not prematurely (Job 5:26).
25. (So Job 9:24).