Satan Further Tempts Job.
1. a day—appointed for the angels giving
an account of their ministry to God. The words "to present himself
before the Lord" occur here, though not in Job 1:6, as Satan has now a special report to
make as to Job.
3. integrity—literally, "completeness";
so "perfect," another form of the same Hebrew word, Job 11:7.
movedst … against—So 1Sa 26:19; compare 1Ch 21:1 with
4. Skin for skin—a proverb. Supply, "He
will give." The "skin" is figurative for any outward good. Nothing
outward is so dear that a man will not exchange it for some other
outward good; "but" (not "yea") "life," the inward good, cannot be
replaced; a man will sacrifice everything else for its sake. Satan
sneers bitterly at man's egotism and says that Job bears the loss of
property and children because these are mere outward and
exchangeable goods, but he will give up all things, even his
religion, in order to save his life, if you touch his bones and flesh.
"Skin" and "life" are in antithesis [Umbreit]. The martyrs prove Satan's sneer false.
Rosenmuller explains it not so well. A
man willingly gives up another's skin (life) for his own
skin (life). So Job might bear the loss of his children, &c., with
equanimity, so long as he remained unhurt himself; but when touched in
his own person, he would renounce God. Thus the first "skin" means the
other's skin, that is, body; the second "skin," one's
own, as in Ex 21:28.
6. but save—rather, "only spare his
life." Satan shows his ingenuity in inflicting pain, and also his
knowledge of what man's body can bear without vital injury.
7. sore boils—malignant boils; rather,
as it is singular in the Hebrew, a "burning sore." Job was
covered with one universal inflammation. The use of the potsherd [Job 2:8] agrees with this view. It was
that form of leprosy called black (to distinguish it from the
white), or elephantiasis, because the feet swell like
those of the elephant. The Arabic judham (De 28:35), where "sore botch" is rather the black
burning boil (Isa 1:6).
8. a potsherd—not a piece of a broken
earthen vessel, but an instrument made for scratching (the root of the
Hebrew word is "scratch"); the sore was too disgusting to touch.
"To sit in the ashes" marks the deepest mourning (Jon 3:6); also humility, as if the mourner were
nothing but dust and ashes; so Abraham (Ge 18:27).
Job Reproves His Wife.
9. curse God—rather, "renounce" God.
(See on Job 1:5) [Umbreit]. However, it was usual among the heathens,
when disappointed in their prayers accompanied with offerings to their
gods, to reproach and curse them.
and die—that is, take thy farewell of
God and so die. For no good is to be got out of religion, either here
or hereafter; or, at least, not in this life [Gill]; Nothing makes the ungodly so angry as to see
the godly under trial not angry.
10. the foolish women—Sin and folly are
allied in Scripture (1Sa 25:25; 2Sa 13:13; Ps 14:1).
receive evil—bear willingly (La 3:39).
11. Eliphaz—The view of Rawlinson that "the names of Job's three friends
represent the Chaldean times, about 700 B.C.," cannot be accepted. Eliphaz is an Idumean
name, Esau's oldest son (Ge 36:4); and
Teman, son of Eliphaz (Ge 36:15),
called "duke." Eusebius places Teman in
Arabia-Petræa (but see on Job 6:19). Teman
means "at the right hand"; and then the south, namely, part of Idumea;
capital of Edom (Am 1:12).
Hebrew geographers faced the east, not the north as we do; hence with
them "the right hand" was the south. Temanites were famed for wisdom
49:7). Baruch mentions them as "authors of fables" (namely,
proverbs embodying the results of observation), and "searchers out of
Bildad the Shuhite—Shuah ("a pit"),
son of Abraham and Keturah (Ge 25:2).
Ptolemy mentions the region Syccea, in
Arabia-Deserta, east of Batanea.
Zophar the Naamathite—not of the
Naamans in Judah (Jos 15:41),
which was too distant; but some region in Arabia-Deserta. Fretelius says there was a Naamath in Uz.
12. toward heaven—They threw ashes
violently upwards, that they might fall on their heads and cover
them—the deepest mourning (Jos 7:6; Ac 22:23).
13. seven days … nights—They did
not remain in the same posture and without food, &c., all this
time, but for most of this period daily and nightly. Sitting on the
earth marked mourning (La 2:10).
Seven days was the usual length of it (Ge 50:10; 1Sa 31:13). This silence may have been due to a
rising suspicion of evil in Job; but chiefly because it is only
ordinary griefs that find vent in language; extraordinary griefs are
too great for utterance.