David Made King.
1. Then all Israel gathered themselves to David
unto Hebron—This event happened on the death of Ish-bosheth
(see on 2Sa 5:1). The convention of the estates
of the kingdom, the public and solemn homage of the representatives of
the people, and the repeated anointing of the new king in their
presence and by their direction, seem to have been necessary to the
general acknowledgment of the sovereign on the part of the nation
(compare 1Sa 11:15).
He Wins the Castle of Zion from the Jebusites
by Joab's Valor.
4. David and all Israel went to …
Jebus—(See on 2Sa 5:6).
8. Joab repaired the rest of the
city—David built a new town to the north of the old one on
Mount Zion; but Joab was charged with a commission to restore the part
that had been occupied by the ancient Jebus, to repair the breaches
made during the siege, to rebuild the houses which had been demolished
or burned in the sacking of the town, and to preserve all that had
escaped the violence of the soldiery. This work of reconstruction is
not noticed elsewhere [Calmet].
1Ch 11:10-47. A Catalogue of
10. These … are the chief of the mighty
men—(See on 2Sa 23:8). They are here
described as those who held strongly with him (Margin) to make
him king, &c. In these words the sacred historian assigns a reason
for introducing the list of their names, immediately after his account
of the election of David as king, and the conquest of Jerusalem;
namely, that they assisted in making David king. In the original form
of the list, and the connection in which it occurs in Samuel, there is
no reference to the choice of a king; and even in this passage it is
only in the clause introduced into the superscription that such a
reference occurs [Keil].
11-13. Jashobeam, an Hachmonite—or, "son
of Hachmoni." He is called also son of Zabdiel (1Ch 27:2), so that, strictly speaking, he was the
grandson of Hachmoni (compare 1Ch 27:32).
lifted up his spear against three hundred slain
by him at one time—The feat is said (2Sa 23:8) to have been a slaughter of eight
hundred in one day. Some endeavor to reconcile the statements in that
passage and in this by supposing that he slew eight hundred on one
occasion and three hundred on another; while others conjecture that he
attacked a body of eight hundred, and, having slain three hundred of
them, the rest fled [Lightfoot].
12. the three mighties—Only two are
mentioned; namely, Jashobeam and Eleazar—the third, Shammah
23:11), is not named in this
13. He was with David at Pas-dammim—It
was at the time when he was a fugitive in the wilderness, and, parched
with thirst under the burning heat of noonday, he wistfully thought of
the cool fountain of his native village [2Sa 23:15; 1Ch 11:17]. This is a notice of the
achievement, to which Eleazar owed his fame, but the details are found
only in 2Sa 23:9-11, where it is further said that he was
aided by the valor of Shammah, a fact corroborated in the passage
before us (1Ch 11:14),
where it is recorded of the heroes, that "they set themselves in the
midst of that parcel." As the singular number is used in speaking of
Shammah (2Sa 23:12),
the true view seems to be that when Eleazar had given up from
exhaustion, Shammah succeeded, and by his fresh and extraordinary
prowess preserved the field.
barley—or lentils (2Sa 23:11). Ephes-dammim was situated between
Shocoh and Azekah, in the west of the Judahite territory. These feats
were performed when David acted as Saul's general against the
15-19. David longed, and said, Oh that one would
give me drink … of the well of Beth-lehem—(See on 2Sa 23:15). This chivalrous act evinces the
enthusiastic devotion of David's men, that they were ready to gratify
his smallest wish at the risk of their lives. It is probable that, when
uttering the wish, David had no recollection of the military posted at
Beth-lehem. It is generally taken for granted that those who fought a
way to the well of Beth-lehem were the three champions just mentioned
[see on 1Ch 11:13]. But this is far from being
clear. On the contrary, it would seem that three different heroes are
referred to, for Abishai (1Ch 11:20)
was one of them. The camp of the Philistines was in the valley of
Rephaim (1Ch 11:15),
which lay on the west of Jerusalem, but an outpost was stationed at
Beth-lehem (1Ch 11:16),
and through this garrison they had to force a passage.
21. howbeit he attained not to the first
three—(See on 2Sa 23:19).
22. Benaiah … of Kabzeel—a town in
the south of Judah (Jos 15:21; Ne 11:25). It is said that "he had done many
acts," though three only are mentioned as specimens of his daring
energy and fearless courage.
slew two lionlike men of
Moab—literally, "lions of God," that is, great lions or
champions. This gallant feat was probably achieved in David's hostile
invasion of Moab (2Sa 8:2).
also he went down and slew a lion in a pit in a
snowy day—probably a cave into which Benaiah had taken refuge
from the snowstorm, and in which he encountered a savage lion which had
its lair there. In a spacious cave the achievement would be far greater
than if the monster had been previously snared or cabined in a pit.
23. he went down—the ordinary
phraseology for expressing an engagement in battle. The encounter of
Benaiah with this gigantic Egyptian reminds us, in some respects, of
David's combat with Goliath. At least, the height of this giant, which
was about eight feet, and his armor, resembled his of Gath.
with a staff—that is, having no other
weapon in his hand than his walking stick.
25. David set him over his guard—the
Cherethites and Pelethites that composed the small bodyguard in
immediate attendance on the king.
26. Also the valiant men of the
armies—This was the third degree of military rank, and Asahel
was their chief; the names of few of those mentioned are historically
27. Shammoth—Between this name and
Hebez, that of Elikah has evidently fallen out, as we may see (2Sa 23:25,
30. Maharai—chief of the detachment of
the guards who attended on the king in the tenth month, January (1Ch
27:13; 2Sa 23:28).
39. Naharai—armorbearer to Joab (2Sa 23:37). The non-occurrence of Joab's
name in any of the three catalogues is most probably to be accounted
for by the circumstance that his office as commander-in-chief raised
him to a position superior to all these orders of military
41. Uriah the Hittite—The enrolment of
this name in such a list, attesting, as it does, his distinguished
merits as a brave and devoted officer, aggravates the criminality of
David's outrage on his life and honor. The number of the names at 1Ch
11:26-41 (exclusive of Asahel
and Uriah, who were dead) is thirty, and at 1Ch 11:41-47 is sixteen—making together
forty-eight (see on 1Ch 27:1-34). Of those
mentioned (1Ch 11:26-41), the greater part belonged to the
tribes of Judah and Benjamin; the sixteen names (1Ch 11:41-47) are all associated with places
unknown, or with cities and districts on the east of the Jordan. The
northern tribes do not appear to have furnished any leaders [Bertheau].