The Tribes Anoint David King over
1, 2. Then came all the tribes of
Israel—a combined deputation of the leading authorities in
every tribe. [See on 1Ch 11:1.] David possessed
the first and indispensable qualification for the throne; namely, that
of being an Israelite (De 17:15).
Of his military talent he had furnished ample proof. And the people's
desire for his assumption of the government of Israel was further
increased by their knowledge of the will and purpose of God, as
declared by Samuel (1Sa 16:11-13).
3. King David made a league with them in Hebron
before the Lord—(see on 1Sa 10:17).
This formal declaration of the constitution was chiefly made at the
commencement of a new dynasty, or at the restoration of the royal
family after a usurpation (2Ki 11:17),
though circumstances sometimes led to its being renewed on the
accession of any new sovereign (1Ki 12:4). It seems to have been accompanied by
He Takes Zion from the Jebusites.
6. the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the
Jebusites—The first expedition of David, as king of the whole
country, was directed against this place, which had hitherto remained
in the hands of the natives. It was strongly fortified and deemed so
impregnable that the blind and lame were sent to man the battlements,
in derisive mockery of the Hebrew king's attack, and to shout, "David
cannot come in hither." To understand the full meaning and force of
this insulting taunt, it is necessary to bear in mind the depth and
steepness of the valley of Gihon, and the lofty walls of the ancient
7. the stronghold of Zion—Whether Zion
be the southwestern hill commonly so-called, or the peak now level on
the north of the temple mount, it is the towering height which catches
the eye from every quarter—"the hill fort," "the rocky hold" of
8. Whosoever getteth up to the
gutter—This is thought by some to mean a subterranean
passage; by others a spout through which water was poured upon the fire
which the besiegers often applied to the woodwork at the gateways, and
by the projections of which a skilful climber might make his ascent
good; a third class render the words, "whosoever dasheth them against
the precipice" (1Ch 11:6).
9. David dwelt in the fort,
&c.—Having taken it by storm, he changed its name to "the
city of David," to signify the importance of the conquest, and to
perpetuate the memory of the event.
David built round about from Millo and
inward—probably a row of stone bastions placed on the
northern side of Mount Zion, and built by David to secure himself on
that side from the Jebusites, who still lived in the lower part of the
city. The house of Millo was perhaps the principal corner tower of that
11, 12. Hiram … sent carpenters, and
masons—The influx of Tyrian architects and mechanics affords
a clear evidence of the low state to which, through the disorders of
long-continued war, the better class of artisans had declined in
2Sa 5:13-16. Eleven Sons
Born to Him.
13. David took him more concubines and
wives—In this conduct David transgressed an express law,
which forbade the king of Israel to multiply wives unto himself (De 17:17).
2Sa 5:17-25. He Smites the
17. when the Philistines heard that they had
anointed David king over Israel—During the civil war between
the house of Saul and David, those restless neighbors had remained
quiet spectators of the contest. But now, jealous of David, they
resolved to attack him before his government was fully established.
18. valley of Rephaim—that is, "of
giants," a broad and fertile plain, which descends gradually from the
central mountains towards the northwest. It was the route by which they
marched against Jerusalem. The "hold" to which David went down "was
some fortified place where he might oppose the progress of the
invaders," and where he signally defeated them.
21. there they left their
images—probably their "lares" or household deities, which
they had brought into the field to fight for them. They were burnt as
ordained by law (De 7:5).
22. the Philistines came up yet
again—The next year they renewed their hostile attempt with a
larger force, but God manifestly interposed in David's favor.
24. the sound of a going in the tops of the
mulberry trees—now generally thought not to be mulberry
trees, but some other tree, most probably the poplar, which delights in
moist situations, and the leaves of which are rustled by the slightest
movement of the air [Royle].