Nu 28:1-31. Offerings to Be
2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto
them—The repetition of several laws formerly enacted, which
is made in this chapter, was seasonable and necessary, not only on
account of their importance and the frequent neglect of them, but
because a new generation had sprung up since their first institution
and because the Israelites were about to be settled in the land where
those ordinances were to be observed.
My offering, and my bread—used
generally for the appointed offerings, and the import of the
prescription is to enforce regularity and care in their observance.
9, 10. This is the burnt offering of every
sabbath—There is no previous mention of a Sabbath burnt
offering, which was additional to the daily sacrifices.
11-15. And in the beginnings of your months ye
shall offer a burnt offering unto the Lord—These were held as
sacred festivals; and though not possessing the character of solemn
feasts, they were distinguished by the blowing of trumpets over the
sacrifices (Nu 10:10),
by the suspension of all labor except the domestic occupations of women
(Am 8:5), by the celebration of public
worship (2Ki 4:23),
and by social or family feasts (1Sa 20:5). These observations are not prescribed
in the law though they obtained in the practice of a later time. The
beginning of the month was known, not by astronomical calculations,
but, according to Jewish writers, by the testimony of messengers
appointed to watch the first visible appearance of the new moon; and
then the fact was announced through the whole country by signal-fires
kindled on the mountain tops. The new-moon festivals having been common
among the heathen, it is probable that an important design of their
institution in Israel was to give the minds of that people a better
direction; and assuming this to have been one of the objects
contemplated, it will account for one of the kids being offered unto
the Lord (Nu 28:15),
not unto the moon, as the Egyptians and Syrians did. The Sabbath and
the new moon are frequently mentioned together.
16-25. in the fourteenth day of the first month is
the passover—The law for that great annual festival is given
23:5), but some details are
here introduced, as certain specified offerings are prescribed to be
made on each of the seven days of unleavened bread [Nu 28:18-25].
26, 27. in the day of the first-fruits …
offer the burnt offering—A new sacrifice is here ordered for
the celebration of this festival, in addition to the other offering,
which was to accompany the first-fruits (Le 23:18).