The People Murmur for Water.
1. the children of Israel journeyed from the
wilderness of Sin—In the succinct annals of this book, those
places only are selected for particular notice by the inspired
historian, which were scenes memorable for their happy or painful
interest in the history of the Israelites. A more detailed itinerary is
given in the later books of Moses, and we find that here two stations
are omitted (Nu 33:1-56).
according to the commandment of the Lord,
&c.—not given in oracular response, nor a vision of the
night, but indicated by the movement of the cloudy pillar. The same
phraseology occurs elsewhere (Nu 9:18, 19).
pitched in Rephidim—now believed, on
good grounds, to be Wady Feiran, which is exactly a day's march from
Mount Sinai, and at the entrance of the Horeb district. It is a long
circuitous defile about forty feet in breadth, with perpendicular
granite rocks on both sides. The wilderness of Sin through which they
approached to this valley is very barren, has an extremely dry and
thirsty aspect, little or no water, scarcely even a dwarfish shrub to
be seen, and the only shelter to the panting pilgrims is under the
shadow of the great overhanging cliffs.
2, 3. the people did chide with Moses, and said,
Give us water that we may drink, &c.—The want of water
was a privation, the severity of which we cannot estimate, and it was a
great trial to the Israelites, but their conduct on this new occasion
was outrageous; it amounted even to "a tempting of the Lord." It was an
opposition to His minister, a distrust of His care, an indifference to
His kindness, an unbelief in His providence, a trying of His patience
and fatherly forbearance.
4. Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, What shall I
do unto this people?—His language, instead of betraying any
signs of resentment or vindictive imprecation on a people who had given
him a cruel and unmerited treatment, was the expression of an anxious
wish to know what was the best to be done in the circumstances (compare
5:44; Ro 12:21).
5. the Lord said unto Moses, &c.—not
to smite the rebels, but the rock; not to bring a stream of blood from
the breast of the offenders, but a stream of water from the granite
cliffs. The cloud rested on a particular rock, just as the star rested
on the house where the infant Saviour was lodged [Mt 2:9]. And from the rod-smitten rock there
forthwith gushed a current of pure and refreshing water. It was perhaps
the greatest miracle performed by Moses, and in many respects bore a
resemblance to the greatest of Christ's: being done without ostentation
and in the presence of a few chosen witnesses (1Co 10:4).
7. called the name of the place—Massah
("temptation"); Meribah ("chiding," "strife"): the same word which is
rendered "provocation" (Heb 3:8).
Ex 17:8-16. Attack of
8. Then came Amalek—Some time probably
elapsed before they were exposed to this new evil; and the presumption
of there being such an interval affords the only ground on which we can
satisfactorily account for the altered, the better, and former spirit
that animated the people in this sudden contest. The miracles of the
manna and the water from the rock had produced a deep impression and
permanent conviction that God was indeed among them; and with feelings
elevated by the conscious experience of the Divine Presence and aid,
they remained calm, resolute, and courageous under the attack of their
fought with Israel—The language
implies that no occasion had been furnished for this attack; but, as
descendants of Esau, the Amalekites entertained a deep-seated grudge
against them, especially as the rapid prosperity and marvellous
experience of Israel showed that the blessing contained in the
birthright was taking effect. It seems to have been a mean, dastardly,
insidious surprise on the rear (Nu 24:20; De 25:17), and an impious defiance of God.
9. Moses said unto Joshua—or, "Jesus"
7:45; Heb 4:8). This is the
earliest notice of a young warrior destined to act a prominent part in
the history of Israel. He went with a number of picked men. There is
not here a wide open plain on which the battle took place, as according
to the rules of modern warfare. The Amalekites were a nomadic tribe,
making an irregular attack on a multitude probably not better trained
than themselves, and for such a conflict the low hills and open country
around this wady would afford ample space [Robinson].
10-12. Moses … went up … the hill
… held up his hand—with the wonder-working rod; Moses
acted as the standard bearer of Israel, and also their intercessor,
praying for success and victory to crown their arms—the
earnestness of his feelings being conspicuously evinced amid the
feebleness of nature.
13. Joshua discomfited Amalek—Victory at
length decided in favor of Israel, and the glory of the victory, by an
act of national piety, was ascribed to God (compare 1Jo 5:4).
14-16. Write this for a memorial—If the
bloody character of this statute seems to be at variance with the mild
and merciful character of God, the reasons are to be sought in the deep
and implacable vengeance they meditated against Israel (Ps 83:4).