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CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

PART II.
ANTHROPOLOGY.
CHAPTER I.
ORIGIN OF MAN.
page
§ 1. Scriptural Doctrine 3
§ 2. Anti-Scriptural Theories 4

Heathen Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation. — Modern Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation

5

Theories of Development. — Lamarck. — Vestiges of Creation. — Darwin. — Remarks on the Darwinian Theory. — Atheistic. — Mere Hypothesis

19

Theories of the Universe. — Darwin. — J. J. Murphy. — Owen. — Common Doctrine. — Admitted Difficulties in the way of the Darwinian Theory. — Sterility of Hybrids. — Geographical Distribution

29

Pangenesis

32
§ 3. Antiquity of Man 33

Lake Dwellings. — Fossil Human Remains.— Human Bones found with those of Extinct Animals. — Flint Instruments. — Races of Men. — Ancient Monuments

39
CHAPTER II.
NATURE OF MAN.
§ 1. Scriptural Doctrine 42

Truths assumed in Scriptures. — Relation of the Soul and Body. — Realistic Dualism

46
§ 2. Trichotomy 47

Anti-Scriptural. — Doubtful Passages

48
§ 3. Realism 51

Its General Character.—Generic Humanity.— Objections to Realism. — From Consciousness. — Contrary to Scriptures. — Inconsistent with Doctrine of the Trinity, and of the Person of Christ

60
§ 4. Another Form of the Realistic Theory 61
ivCHAPTER III.
ORIGIN OF THE SOUL.
§ 1. Theory of Preëxistence 65
§ 2. Traducianism 68
§ 3. Creationism 70
Arguments from the Nature of the Soul 71
§ 4. Concluding Remarks 72
CHAPTER IV.
UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE.
§ 1. Idea of Species 78

General Characteristics. — Definitions

79
§ 2. Evidences of the Identity of Species 82

Organic Structure. — Physiology. —Psychology

85
§ 3. Application of these Criteria to Man 86

The Evidence Cumulative

88
§ 4. Philological and Moral Argument 88

Brotherhood of Man

90
CHAPTER V.
ORIGINAL STATE OF MAN.
§ 1. Scriptural Doctrine 92
§ 2. Man created in the Image of God 96
§ 3. Original Righteousness 99
§ 4. Dominion over the Creatures 102
§ 5. Doctrine of Romanists 103
§ 6. Pelagian and Rationalistic Doctrine 106

Immanent Dispositions may have Moral Character. — General Judgment of Men on this Point.— Argument from Scripture, and from the Faith of the Church. — The Character of Dispositions depends on their Nature.— Objections considered. — Pelagians teach that Man was created Mortal

115
CHAPTER VI.
COVENANT OF WORKS.
§ 1. God made a Covenant with Adam 117
§ 2. The Promise 118
§ 3. The Condition 119
§ 4. The Penalty 120
§ 5. The Parties 121
§ 6. The Perpetuity of the Covenant 122
CHAPTER VII.
THE FALL.
§ 1.

Scriptural Account. — The Tree of Life. — The Tree of Knowledge — The Serpent.—The Temptation.— Effects of the First Sin

123
vCHAPTER VIII.
SIN.
§ 1. Nature of the Question 130
§ 2. Philosophical Theories 132

Limitation of Being. — Leibnitz’s Theory. — Antagonism. — Schleiermacher’s Theory. — The Sensuous Theory. — Selfishness

144
Theological Theories.
§ 3. Doctrine of the Early Church 150
§ 4. Pelagian Theory 152
Arguments against it 155
§ 5. Augustine’s Doctrine 157

Philosophical Element of his Doctrine. — Why he made Sin a Negation. — The Moral Element of his Doctrine

159
§ 6. Doctrine of the Church of Rome 164

Diversity of Doctrine in the Latin Church. — Semi-Pelagian. — Anselm. — Abelard. — Thomas Aquinas. — The Scotists

173

Tridentine Doctrine on Original Sin

174

The true Doctrine of the Church of Rome

177
§ 7. Protestant Doctrine of Sin 180

Sin a specific Evil. — Has relation to Law. — That Law the Law of God. — Extent of the Law’s Demands. — Sin not confined to Acts of the Will. — Consists in want of Conformity to the Law of God. — Includes Guilt and Pollution

188
§ 8. Effects of Adam’s Sin on his Posterity 192
§ 9. Immediate Imputation 192

Statement of the Doctrine. — Ground of the Imputation of Adam’s Sin. — Adam the Federal Head of his Race. — The Representative Principle in the Scriptures. — This Principle involved in other Doctrines. — Argument from Romans v. 12-21. — From General Consent. — Objections

204
§ 10. Mediate Imputation 205

Origin of the Doctrine in the French Church . — Held by Theologians in other Churches. — Objections. — Theory of Propagation

214
§ 11. Preëxistence 214
§ 12 Realistic Theory 216

President Edwards’ Theory. — Proper Realistic Theory. — Objections

219
§ 13. Original Sin 227

Its Nature. — Proof of the Doctrine. — From the Universality of Sin. — From the entire Sinfulness of Man. — From the incorrigible Nature of Sin. — From its early Manifestations. — Evasions of the foregoing Arguments. — Declarations of Scripture. — Argument from the necessity of Redemption. — From the necessity of Regeneration. — From Infant Baptism.— From the Universality of Death. —From the common Consent of Christians

241

Objections. —Men responsible only for Voluntary Acts. — Inconsistent viwith the justice of God. — Makes God the Author of Sin. — Inconsistent with Free Agency

254
§ 14. Seat of Original Sin 254

The whole Soul its Seat

255
§ 15. Inability 257

Doctrine as stated in the Protestant Symbols. — The Nature of the Sinner’s Inability

260

Inability not mere Disinclination.— Arises from the want of Spiritual Discernment. — Asserted only in reference to “Things of the Spirit.” — In what sense Natural. — In what sense Moral. — Objections to the popular Distinction between Natural and Moral Ability

265

Proof of the Doctrine

267

The Negative Argument. — Involved in the Doctrine of Original Sin. — Argument from the Necessity of the Spirit’s Influence.—From Experience. — Objections. —Inconsistent with Moral Obligation. — Destroys the Motives to Exertion. — Encourages Delay

276
CHAPTER IX.
FREE AGENCY.
§ 1. Different Theories of the Will 280

Necessity. — Contingency. — Certainty

284
§ 2. Definition of Terms 288

Will. — Motive. — Cause. — Liberty. — Liberty and Ability.— Se1fdetermination and Self-determination of the Will

294
§ 3. Certainty consistent with Liberty 295

Points of Agreement. — Arguments for the Doctrine of Certainty. — From the Foreknowledge of God. — From Foreordination. — From Providence. — From the Doctrines of Grace. — From Consciousness. — From the Moral Character of Volitions. — From the Rational Nature of Man. — From the Doctrine of Sufficient Cause

306
PART III.
SOTERIOLOGY.
CHAPTER I.
PLAN OF SALVATION.
§ 1. God has such a Plan 313

Importance of knowing it. — Means of knowing it

315
§ 2. Supralapsarianism 316
§ 3. Infralapsarianism 319
§ 4. Hypothetical Redemption 321

Objections to that Scheme

323
§ 5. The Lutheran Doctrine as to the Plan of Salvation 324
§ 6. The Remonstrant Doctrine 327
vii§ 7. The Wesleyan Doctrine 329
§ 8. The Augustinian Doctrine 331

Preliminary Remarks. — Statement of the Doctrine. — Proof of the Doctrine

334

Argument from the Facts of Providence. — From the Facts of Scripture

339

The Relation of God to his Rational Creatures. — Man a Fallen Race. — Work of the Spirit. — Election is to Holiness. — Gratuitous Nature of Salvation. — Paul’s Argument in the Ninth Chapter of Romans. — Argument from Experience

344

Express Declarations of Scripture. — The Words of Jesus

346
§ 9. Objections to the Augustinian Doctrine 349

The Objections shown to bear against the Providence of God. — Founded on our Ignorance. — Same Objections urged against the Teachings of the Apostles

352
CHAPTER II.
COVENANT OF GRACE.
§ 1. The Plan of Salvation is a Covenant 354
§ 2. Different Views of the Nature of that Covenant 355

Pelagian View. — Remonstrant View. — Wesleyan Arminian View. — Lutheran View. — Augustinian Doctrine

356
§ 3. Parties to the Covenant 357

Distinction between the Covenant of Redemption and the Covenant of Grace

358
§ 4. Covenant of Redemption 359
§ 5. Covenant of Grace 362
§ 6. Identity of the Covenant under all Dispensations 366

Promise of Eternal Life made before the Advent of Christ. — Christ the Redeemer under all Dispensations. — Faith the Condition of Salvation from the Beginning

371
§ 7. Different Dispensations 373

From Adam to Abraham. — Abraham to Moses.—Moses to Christ. — The Gospel Dispensation

378
CHAPTER III.
THE PERSON OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Preliminary Remarks 378
§ 2. Scriptural Facts concerning the Person of Christ 380

He is truly Man. — He is truly God. — He is one Person Proof of the Doctrine. — Proof’ of the several Points separately. — From the current Representations of Scripture. — From particular Passages of Scripture. — St. John’s Gospel i. 1-141 John i. 1-3. — Romans i. 2-5. — 1 Timothy iii. 16. — Philippians ii. 6-11. — Hebrews ii. 14

384
§ 3. The Hypostatical Union 387

Two Natures in Christ. — Meaning of the Word Nature. — Two Natures united but not confounded. — The Attributes of one viiiNature not transferred to the other. — The Union is a Personal Union

390
§ 4. Consequences of the Hypostatical Union 392

Communion of Attributes. — The Acts of Christ. — The Man Christ Jesus the Object of Worship. — Christ can sympathize with his People. — The Incarnate Logos the Source of Life. — The Exaltation of the Human Nature of Christ

397
§ 5.

Erroneous Doctrines on the Person of Christ. — Ebionites. — Gnostics. — Apollinarian Doctrine. — Nestcrianism. — Eutychianism. — Monothelite Controversy

404
§ 6. Doctrine of the Reformed Churches 405
§ 7. Lutheran Doctrine 407

Different Views among the Lutherans. — Remarks on the Lutheran Doctrine

418
§ 8. Later Forms of the Doctrine 418

Socinianism. — Swedenborg. — Dr. Isaac Watts. — Objections to Dr. Watts’ Theory

427
§ 9. Modern Forms of the Doctrine 428

Pantheistical Christology. — Theistical Christology. — The Doctrine of Kenosis. — Ebrard

434

Gess

435

Remarks on the Doctrine of Kenosis

437

Schleiermacher’s Christology

441

Objections to Schleiermacher’s Theory. — Founded on Pantheistical Principles. — Involves Rejection of the Doctrine of the Trinity. — False Anthropology. — Perverts the Plan of Salvation

450
CHAPTER IV.
THE MEDIATORIAL WORK OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Christ the only Mediator 455
§ 2. Qualifications for the Work 456
§ 3. Threefold Office of Christ 459
CHAPTER V.
PROPHETIC OFFICE.
§ 1. Its Nature 462
§ 2. How Christ executes the Office of a Prophet 463
CHAPTER VI.
PRIESTLY OFFICE.
§ 1. Christ is truly a Priest 464
§ 2„ Christ is our only Priest 466
§ 3. Definition of Terms 468

Atonement. — Satisfaction. — Penalty. — Vicarious. — Guilt. — Redemption. — Expiation. — Propitiation

478
ixCHAPTER VII.
SATISFACTION OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Statement of the Doctrine 480
§ 2. The Sense in which the Work of Christ was a Satisfaction 482
§ 3. The Doctrine of the Scotists and Remonstrants 485
§ 4. Christ’s Satisfaction rendered to Justice 489
§ 5. Christ’s Work a Satisfaction to Law 493
§ 6. Proof of the Doctrine as above stated 495

Argument from Christ’s Priestly Office. — From the Sacrificial Character of His Death. — Proof of the Expiatory Character of the Sacrifices for Sin. — Argument from the Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah. — Passages in the New Testament in which Christ’s Work is set forth as a Sacrifice, Romans iii. 25; Hebrews x. 10; 1 John ii. 2; 1 Peter ii. 24

512

Argument from the Nature of Redemption

516

Redemption from the Penalty of the Law. — From the Law itself. — From the Power of Sin. — From the Power of Satan. — Final Redemption from all Evil. — Argument from Related Doctrines

520

Argument from Religious Experience of Believers

523
§ 7. Objections 527

Philosophical Objections. — Objections drawn from the Feelings. — Moral Objections. — Objections urged by the Modern German Theologians

532

Answer to the Theory of these Writers

535

Popular Objections

539
CHAPTER VIII.
FOR WHOM DID CHRIST DIE?
§ 1. State of the Question 544
§ 2. Proof of the Augustinian Doctrine 546

1. From the Nature of the Covenant of Redemption. — 2. Election. — 3. Express Declaration of the Scriptures. — 4. From the Special Love of God. — 5. From the Believer’s Union with Christ. — 6. From the Intercession of Christ. — 7. Church Doctrine embraces all the Facts of the Case

553

Objections. — From the Universal Offer of the Gospel. — From certain Passages of Scripture

558
CHAPTER IX.
THEORIES OF THE ATONEMENT.
§ 1. The Orthodox View 563
§ 2. Doctrine of some of the Early Fathers 564
§ 3. Moral Theory 566

Objections to that Theory

571
§ 4. Governmental Theory 573

Remonstrant Doctrine

575
x

Supernaturalists

576
Objections to Governmental Theory 578
§ 5. Mystical Theory 581

Early Mystics. — Mystics of the Time of the Reformation. — Osiander. — Schwenkfeld. — Oetinger. — The Modern Views

58S
§ 6. Concluding Remarks 589
CHAPTER X.
INTERCESSION OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Christ our Intercessor 592
§ 2. Nature of his Intercession 593
§ 3. Its Objects 594
§ 4. The Intercession of Saints 594
CHAPTER XI.
KINGLY OFFICE OF CHRIST.
§ 1. The Church the Kingdom of God 596
§ 2. Christ truly a King 597
§ 3. Nature of the Kingdom of Christ 599

His Dominion over the Universe. — His Spiritual Kingdom. — His Visible Kingdom. — Nature of that Kingdom

604
§ 4. The Kingdom of Glory 608
CHAPTER XII.
THE HUMILIATION OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Includes his Incarnation 610
§ 2. His Being made under the Law 612
§ 3. His Sufferings and Death 614
§ 4. His Enduring the Wrath of God 614
§ 5. His Death and Burial 615

The “Descensus ad Inferos.” — The Lutheran and Modern Doctrines of the Humiliation of Christ

621
CHAPTER XIII.
THE EXALTATION OF CHRIST.
§ 1. His Resurrection 626
§ 2. His Ascension 630
§ 3. His Session at the Right Hand of God 635
CHAPTER XIV.
VOCATION.
§ 1. Scriptural Usage of the Word 639
§ 2. External Call 641
§ 3. Common Grace 654

Lutheran Doctrine. — Rationalistic Doctrine

657

Proof of the Inward Call of the Spirit as distinct from the Truth

660

xiThis Influence may be without the Word. — The Work of the Spirit distinct from Providential Efficiency

665

An Influence of the Spirit Common to all Men. — Effects of Common Grace

670
§ 4. Efficacious Grace 675

Why Efficacious. — Not simply ab eventu. — Not from its Congruity

677

The Augustinian Doctrine

680

Statement of the Doctrine. — The Main Principle involved

682

It is the Almighty Power of God. — Hence 1. It is Mysterious and Peculiar. 2. Distinct from Common Grace. 3. Distinct from Moral Suasion. 4. Acts immediately. In what Sense Physical. 5. It is Irresistible. 6. The Soul is Passive in Regeneration. 7. Regeneration Instantaneous. 8. It is an Act of Sovereign Grace

688
§ 5. Proof of the Doctrine 689

1. Common Consent. 2. Analogy. 3. Ephesians iii. 17, 19. 4. General Teachings of Scripture. 5. Nature of Regeneration. 6. Argument from related Doctrines. 7. From Experience

706
§ 6. Objections 709
§ 7. History of the Doctrine of Grace 710

Doctrine of the Early Church. — Pelagian Doctrine. — Semi-Pelagian. — Scholastic Period. — Synergistic Controversy. — Controversies in the Reformed Church. — Hypothetical Universalism. — Supernaturalism and Rationalism

721
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