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I. APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGINS: DRUMMOND,
The Jewish Messiah (1877); PORTER,
The Message of the Apocalyptic Writers (New York, 1905);
Apocalyptic Literature, in HASTINGS,
Dict. of the Bible; BAI.DENS-PERGER,
Die messianisch-apokalyptischen Hoffnungen des Judenthums
(Strasburg, 1903); BOUSSET,
Die jüdische Apokalyptik (Berlin, 1903); VOLZ,
Jüdische Eschatologie (Würtemburg, 1903).
Besides the works noted above: SCHÜRER, History of the Jewish People in the Time of Christ, (Edinburgh, 1886, tr. from the German), III, div. II. Special for Book of Henoch: CHARLES The Book of Enoch (Oxford, 1893; tr. and commentary); SCHODDE, The Book of Enoch (1882). Special for Assumption of Moses: CHARLES, The Assumption of Moses (London, 1897; Latin and English text and critical prolegomena). BURKITT, in HAST., Dict. of the Bible; LAGRANGE, Notes sur le messianisme au temps de Jesus, in the Revue biblique, Oct., 1905. -- Special for Book of the Secrets of Henoch: CHARLES AND MORFIL, Book of the Secrets of Enoch (Oxford, 1898; tr. and introduction); LOISY, art. in Revue d'histoire et de littérature religieuses, I, 29 sqq. (1896). -- Special for Fourth Esdras: The complete Latin text is best edited in JAMES AND BENSLY, Texts and Studies (Cambridge, 1895), I, 2d ed.: Latin Bibles want the missing fragment in vii. For English translations: Revised Apocrypha of the English Bible (Oxford); CHURTON, Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures (London, 1884). For studies: THACKERAY, in HAST., Dict. of the Bible; LAGRANGE, art. noted for Assumption of Moses, supra. PIFFARD, Le IV livre d'Esdras (Tournay, 1904; a. commentary). -- Special for the Apocalypse of Baruch; CHARLES, The Apocalypse of Baruch (London, 1896; text, tr., and critical notes). Same art. in HAST., Dict. of the Bible; LAGRANGE, article noted for Assumption of Moses, supra. -- Special for Apocalypse of Abraham: BONWETSCH, German text in Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche (Leipzig, 1897), I, 1; LAGRANGE, art. in Revue Biblique, Oct., 1905. -- Special for Apocalypse of Daniel: DARMESTETER, Study in Mélanges Renier (Paris, 1887).
SCHÜRER, History Of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1886) div. II, vol. II. -- Special for Book of Jubilees: CHARLES, The Book of Jubilees or Little Genesis (London, 1892: text, trans. and criticism); SCHODDE, The Book of Jubilees (Oberlin. O., 1888); HEADLAM, art. in HAST., Dict. of the Bible. -- Special for Book of Jannes and Mambres: MARSHALL, articles in HASTINGS, Dict. of the Bible. -- Special for Third Esdras; Old Testament in Greek, II (Cambridge, 1896, 2d ed., Greek text) (London, 1884, tr.); THACKERAY, First Book of Esdras; HAST., Dict. of the Bible. -- Special for Third Machabees: Old Testament, in Greek (2d ed., Cambridge, 1899; Gr. text); CHURTON, The Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures (London, 1884; tr.); FAIRWEATHER in HAST., Dict. Of the Bible.
Old Testament, in Greek (Cambridge, 2d ed., 1895-99); SCHÜRER, History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1886) div. II, vol. III. -- Special for Psalms of Solomon: RYLE AND JAMES, Psalms of the Pharisees (Cambridge, 1891) introduction and English text; JAMES in HAST., Dict. of the Bible; MOFFAT, The Righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, in Expository Times (1902), X, 201-206. -- Special for one hundred and fifty-first Psalm and Prayer of Manasses: CHURTON, Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, tr. (London, 1884); PORTER, art. Prayer of Manassees in HAST., Dict. of the Bible.
FOR THE TEXT OF THE FOURTH BOOK OF MACHABEES: Old Testament in Greek, (Cambridge, 1894, 1899) III; FOR AN ENGLISH VERSION: CHURTON, Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures (London, 1884); FOR INTRODUCTION: SCHÜRER, History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1886) div. II, vol. III; FAIRWEATHER in HAST., Dict. of the Bible.
SCHÜRER, History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1886), div. II, vol. III. -- Special for Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: SINKER, introduction and tr. in vol. VIII of The Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906; reprint of Edinburgh ed.); CHARLES, art. in Hibbert Journal (1905), III; also in HAST., Dict. of the Bible: SCHNAPP, Die Testamente der zwölf Patriarchen untersucht (Halle, 1884). -- Special for Ascension of Isaias: DILLMAN, Ascensio Isaioe oethiopice et latine (Leipzig, 1877); ROBINSON in HAST., Dict. of the Bible.
TASKER in extra volume of HAST., Dict. of the Bible; TAPPEHORN, Aüsserbiblische Nachrichten (Paderborn, 1885).
Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, and Revelations (Edinburgh, 1873;
The Ante-Nicene Fathers, VIII, edited by ROBERTS AND DONALDSON,
Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur (Freiburg, 1902), I;
Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur (Leipzig); 1893, I,
1897, II, 1, 1904, 2; ZAHN,
Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanon (Leipzig, 1890), II;
HENNEKE UND MEYER,
Neutestamentliche Apokryphen (Tübingen, 1904; German texts
with scholarly prologomena); TASKER,
Apocryphal Gospels; HAST.,
Dict. of the Bible, extra volume (1904); LIPSIUS, art,
Apocryphal Gospels in
Dict. of Christ. Biog.
BARDENHEWER, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur (Freiburg, 1902), I; HARNACK, Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur (Leipzig) I, 1893; II, 1, 1897, II, 2, 1904; ZAHN, Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanon (Leipzig, 1890), II; TASKER, Apocryphal Gospels; HAST., Dict. of the Bible, extra volume; LIPSIUS, Apocryphal Gospels, Dict. of Christ Biog. -- Special for the Gospel according to the Hebrews: All the fragments are reproduced in NICHOLSON, The Gospel according to the Hebrews (London, 1897); ROSE, Etudes sur les Evangiles (Paris, 1902), 18 sqq. -- Special for Gospel according to the Egyptians: ROSE, Etudes sur les Evangiles (Paris, 1902) refutes HARNACK'S view of the priority of the acceptance of the Egyptian Gospel to that of the canonical ones. -- Special for the Gospel of St. Peter: RUTHERFORD, Ante-Nicene Fathers (introduction and tr.), IX; ROBINSON, The Gospel according to Peter and Revelation of Peter (London, 1892); ZAHN, Das Evangelium des Petrus (1893); SEMERIA, art. in Revue Biblique (1894), III, 522 sqq. -- Special for Gospel of St. Thomas: WALKER, Apocryphal Gospels, etc. (Edinburgh, 1873, tr.); Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906). VIII; CONRADY, art in Theologische Studien und Kritiken (1903), LXXVI, 2. -- Special for Gospel of St. Bartholomew: LACAU, Fragments d'Apocryphes Coptes (Cairo, 1904; text); BAUMSTARK, Revue Bibligue, April, 1906, 249-253-263. -- Special for Gospel of the Twelve Apostles: REVEILLOUT, French tr. of supposed fragments, in Revue Biblique, (1904), 330, 336 sqq.; Les Apocryphes Coptes, in Patrologia Orientalis (Paris, 1905) II, 43 sqq., 156 sqq.
See the histories of BARDENHEWER, HARNACK, PREUSCHEN, and ZAHN, referred to in the bibliographies above. For the Report of Pilate to the Emperor, HARNACK, Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur (Leipzig, 1897), II, I, 604 sqq., inserts the Greek and Latin text. The ancient texts of these apocrypha, are edited in TISCHENDORF'S Evangelia Apocrypha (Leipzig, 1853, 1876); Translations of the Anaphora, the Report of Pilate, of The Giving Up, of the Epistola ad Tiberium, The Letter of Pontius Pilate, are supplied in WALKER and Ante-Nicene Fathers, editions of the apocrypha, previously cited. The Herod-Pilate Correspondence in English: Apocryphal Books of the New Testament, anon. (Philadelphia, 1890, 1901). -- Special for the Abgar correspondence: Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906; English), VIII; LIPSIUS, Die Edessenische Abgarsage kritisch untersucht (Brunswick, 1883); WRIGHT, Abgar, in Dict. of Chris. Biog; VIGOUROUX, Abgar, in Dict. de la Bible.
LIPSIUS in Dict. of Christ. Biog.; SALMON, art. Leucius, in same work; Historical Introduction to the New Testament (4th ed., 1889); DUCHESNE, Les anciens recueils de légendes apostoliques; Compte-Rendu of the Catholic Scientific Congress of Brussels (Brussels, 1895).
Consult the works of BARDENHEWER, HARNACK, and PREUSCHEN, also ZAHN, given in previous bibliographies. For the original texts: LIPSIUS AND BONNET, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha (Leipzig, 1891), Pars I; JAMES, Apocrypha Anecdota (Cambridge, 1897), belonging to the Cambridge Texts and Studies series; WRIGHT, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (London, 1871), contains an edition and translation of Syriac manuscripts; Eng. translations are given in WALKER, Apocryphal Gospels, etc. (Edinburgh, 1873); Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906), VIII; the magisterial work on the Apocryphal Acts and Legends is: LIPSIUS, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden (Brunswick, 1883, 1887, 1890), exhaustive and critical in the liberal Protestant spirit. The same author has contributed an article to the Dict. of Christ Biog. For the points of contact of the Apocryphal Acts with profane history: GUTSCHMID, Die Königsnamen in den apokryphen Apostelgeschichten, in the Rheinisches Museum für Philologie (1864), XIX, 161-183, 380-401. -- Special for Acts of St. Peter: CHASE, art. Peter ( Simon) in HAST., Dict. of the Bible. -- Special for Acts of St. John: ZAHN. Die Wanderungen des Apostels Johannes in the Neue Kirchliche Zeit schrift (1899), X. -- Special for Acts of St. Thomas: The Ethiopic text was edited by MALAN, Conflicts of the Apostles (London, 1871), and rendered into the vernacular by BRIDGE (London, 1899); LEVY, in Analecta Bollandiana (1899), XVIII, 275 sqq.; MEDLYCOTT, India and the Apostle Thomas; An Inquiry with a Critical Analysis of the Acta Thomoe (London, 1905).
See the literature common to the Gnostic Acts above. -- Special for Acts of Peter and Paul: CHASE, art. Peter ( Simon) in HAST., Dict. of the Bible. -- Special for Acts of St. Paul: SCHMIDT, Acta Pauli (Leipzig, 1904), exhaustive researches, Coptic text, and Germ. trans.; DEIBER, in Revue Biblique, 1904, 443 sqq., summarizes contents; NAU, Revue de l'Orient chrétien (1898), III, published a Syriac Martyrdom, of St. Paul. -- Special for Acts of Paul and Thecla: GWINN, Thecla, in Dict. of Christ Biog.; REY, Etudes sur les Acta Pauli et Thecloe (Paris, 1890); RAMSEY, The Church in the Roman Empire before 170 A.D. (London, 1893), 375 sqq.; HOLZHEY, Die Thekla-Akten. Ihre Verbreitung und Beurteilung in der Kirche (Munich, 1905). -- Special for the Teaching of Addai: PHILLIPS, The Doctrine of Addai, the Apostle (London, 1876), Syriac and English texts with notes; TIXERONT, Les origines de l'Église d'Edesse et la légende d'Abgar (Paris, 1888). -- Special for Acts of Simon and Jude: The text of the Passio is in FABRICIUS, Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti (Hamburg, 1703, 1719). -- Special for Acts of Barnabas: BRAUNSBERGER, Der Apostel Barnabas (Mainz, 1876).
QUASI-APOSTOLIC ACTS: See LIPSIUS, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten (Brunswick, 1884), II, 2; JAMES, Apocrypha Anecdota (Cambridge, 1893).
Besides the oft-mentioned works of BARDENHEWER, etc.; VETTER, Der apokryphe dritte Korintherbrief (Vienna, 1894); HARNACK, Untersuchungen über den apokryphen Briefwechsel der Korinther mit dem Apostel Paulus (Berlin, 1905); ID., Die apokryphen Briefe des Paulus an die Laodicener und Korinther, Germ. trans. (Berlin, 1905); LIGHTFOOT, St. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (2d ed., London, 1876), contains Latin text of Laodiceans. For the Seneca Letters: KRAUS, Seneka, in Theologische Quartalschrift (1867), XLI; Apocryphal New Testament, anon. (Philadelphia, 1890, 1901); LIGHTFOOT, St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians (3d ed., London, 1873).
For the Testamentum: RAHMANI, Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (Mainz, 1899); FUNK, articles in Der Katholik (1900), I. 1-14; Theologische Quartalschrift (1900), LXXXII, 161-174; BATIFFOL, in Revue Biblique (1900), 253-260; HARNACK, Vorläufige Bemerkungen zu dem jüngst Syrisch und Lateinisch, publizierten "Testamentum D.N. Jesu Christi" (Berlin, 1899); BAUMSTARK, in Römische Quartalschrift (1900), 1-48; RICKABY, Ritual in the Reign of Maximin, in Am. Cath. Quar. Review (1900), XXV. For the history of the discussion: EHRHARD, Die altchristliche Literatur (Freiburg, 1900). For the Preaching of Peter: The fragments are collected in HILGENFELD, Novum Testamentum extra Canonem Receptum (Leipzig, 1884), fasc. IV; DOBSCHÜTZ, Das Kerygma Petri kritisch untersucht, being XI, 1, of HARNACK AND GEBHARDT'S Texte und Untersuchungen. For minor studies consult the histories of BARDENHEWER, HARNACK, and
See the histories of BARDENHEWER, HARNACH, ZAHN, cited in the first bibliographies. English translations of the pseudo-Apocalypses of Peter and John are found in Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906), VIII. -- Special for the Apocalypse of Peter: GEBHARDT, Das Evangelium und die Apokalypse des Petrus (Leipzig, 1893), texts of the HARNACK AND GEBHARDT'S Texte und Untersuchungen; DIETERICH, Nikyia, Beiträge Erklärung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse (Leipzig); SIMMS, art. in Expositor, Dec., 1898, 460-471. -- Special for Apocalypse of Paul: TISCHENDORF, Apocalypses Apocryphoe (Leipzig, 1866), Greek and part of English; JAMES, Apocrypha Anecdota (Cambridge, 1893), Latin and English. English translations of the Apocalypses of St. Paul and St. John are found in WALKER, Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, and Revelations (Edinburgh, 1873); Ante-Nicene Fathers (New York, 1906), VIII.
IV. THE APOCRYPHA AND THE CHURCH: TAPPEHORN, Aüsserbiblische Nachrichten (Paderborn, 1885).
The Book of Henoch (Ethiopic)
The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, because God took him". This walking with God was naturally understood to refer to special revelations made to the patriarch, and this, together with the mystery surrounding his departure from the world, made Henoch's name an apt one for the purposes of apocalyptic writers. In consequence there arose a literature attributed to him.
It influenced not only later Jewish apocrypha, but has left its imprint on the New Testament and the works of the early Fathers. The canonical Epistle of St. Jude, in verses 14, 15, explicitly quotes from the Book of Henoch; the citation is found in the Ethiopic version in verses 9 and 4 of the first chapter. There are probable traces of the Henoch literature in other portions of the New Testament.
Passing to the patristic writers, the Book of Henoch enjoyed a high esteem among them, mainly owing to the quotation in Jude. The so-called Epistle of Barnabas twice cites Henoch as Scripture. Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and even St. Augustine suppose the work to be a genuine one of the patriarch. But in the fourth century the Henoch writings lost credit and ceased to be quoted. After an allusion by an author of the beginning of the ninth century, they disappear from view.
So great was the oblivion into which they fell that only scanty fragments of Greek and Latin versions were preserved in the West. The complete text was thought to have perished when it was discovered in two Ethiopic manuscripts in Abyssinia, by the traveler Bruce in 1773. Since, several more copies in the same language have been brought to light. Recently a large Greek fragment comprising chapters i-xxxii was unearthed at Akhmîn in Egypt.
Scholars agree that the Book of Henoch was originally composed either in Hebrew or Aramaic, and that the Ethiopic version was derived from a Greek one. A comparison of the Ethiopic text with the Akhmîn Greek fragment proves that the former is in general a trustworthy translation. The work is a compilation, and its component parts were written in Palestine by Jews of the orthodox Hasidic or Pharisaic schools. Its composite character appears clearly from the palpable differences in eschatology, in the views of the origin of sin and of the character and importance of the Messias found in portions otherwise marked off from each other by diversities of subject. Critics agree that the oldest portions are those included in chapters i-xxxvi and (broadly speaking) lxxi-civ.
It will be seen that the work is a voluminous one. But the most recent research, led by the Rev. R.H. Charles, an English specialist, breaks up this part into at least two distinct constituents. Charles's analysis and dating are: i-xxxvi, the oldest part, composed before 170 B.C.; xxxvii-lxx, lxxxiii-xc, written between 166-161 B.C.; chapters xci-civ between the years 134-95 B.C.; the Book of Parables between 94-64 B.C.; the Book of Celestial Physics, lxxii-lxxviii, lxxxii, lxxix, date undetermined. Criticism recognizes, scattered here and there, interpolations from a lost apocalypse, the Book of Noah. Expert opinion is not united on the date of the composite older portion, i.e. i-xxxvi, lxxi-civ. The preponderant authority represented by Charles and Schürer assigns it to the latter part of the second century before Christ, but Baldensperger would bring it down to a half century before our Era.
In the following outline of contents, Charles's analysis, which is supported by cogent reasons, has been adopted. The various elements are taken up in their chronological sequence.
Book I, chapters i-xxxvi
Its body contains an account of the fall of the angelic "Watchers", their punishment, and the patriarch's intervention in their history. It is based upon Gen., vi, 2: "The sons of God seeing the daughters of men, that they were fair, took to themselves wives of all they chose." The narrative is intended to explain the origin of sin and evil in the world and in this connection lays very little stress on the disobedience of our First Parents. This portion is remarkable for the entire absence of a Messias.
Book II, lxxxiii-xc
This book contains two visions. In the first, lxxxiii-lxxxiv, is portrayed the dreadful visitation of the flood, about to fall upon the earth. Henoch supplicates God not to annihilate the human race. The remaining section, under the symbolism of cattle, beasts, and birds, sketches the entire history of Israel down to the Messianic reign.
Book III, xci-civ, cviii
It professes to give a prophetic vision of the events of the world-weeks, centering about Israel. This part is distinguished by insistence upon a sharp conflict between the righteous of the nation and their wicked opponents both within and without Israel. They triumph and slay their oppressors in a Messianic kingdom without a personal Messias. At its close occurs the final judgment, which inaugurates a blessed immortality in heaven for the righteous. For this purpose all the departed just will rise from a mysterious abode, though apparently not in the body (ciii, 3, 4). The wicked will go into the Sheol of darkness and fire and dwell there forever. This is one of the earliest mentions of Sheol as a hell of torment, preceding portions of the book having described the place of retribution for the wicked as Tartarus and Geennom.
Book IV, xxxvii-lxx
This book consists of three "Parables". The first describes the secrets of heaven, giving prominence to the angelic hosts and their princes. The second parable (xliv-lvii) deals with the Messias, and is the most striking of this remarkable book. The influence of Daniel is easily traceable here, but the figure of the Messias is sketched much more fully, and the idea developed to a degree unparalleled in pre-Christian literature. The Elect One, or Son of Man, existed before the sun and stars were created, and is to execute justice upon all sinners who oppress the good. For this end there will be a resurrection of all Israel and a judgment in which the Son of Man will render to everyone according to his deeds. Iniquity will be banished from the earth and the reign of the Messias will be everlasting. The third parable (lviii-lxx) describes again the happiness reserved for the just, the great Judgment and the secrets of nature. Here and there throughout the Book of Parables the author gives piecemeal his theory of the origin of sin. Going a step further back than the fault of the Watchers of the first book, he attributes their fall to certain mysterious Satans.
Book V, lxxii-lxxviii, lxxxix, lxxix (transposed)
This book may be called the Book of Celestial Physics, or Astronomy. It presents a bewildering mass of revelations concerning the movements of the heavenly bodies, given to Henoch by the angel Uriel. The final chapters of the entire work, cv-cvii, are drawn from the lost Book of Noah.
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