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vivii

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE.

As at several places in this volume Latin quotations are largely introduced, so as to form portions of the text, these have in many cases been simply reproduced in English. Where the meaning is less obvious, and the reader might desire to be made acquainted with the original, the Latin has been inserted within brackets.

viiiixix

CONTENTS.

PART II.

DEVELOPMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL DOGMA.

BOOK II., Continued.

Expansion and Remodelling of Dogma into a Doctrine of Sin, Grace, and Means of Grace on the basis of the Church.

Page
CHAPTER I11The two chapters which make up this volume answer to Chapters VII. and VIII. of Part II., Book II., in the Original German Edition.. — History of Dogma in the Period of Clugny, Anselm, and Bernard 1-83
  Introduction 1
1. Fresh rise of piety 3-15
Clugny. Renunciation of the world and rule over it. Monastic training of the clergy 3
The Crusades and their consequences for piety 8
The piety of St. Bernard 10
Objectionable elements in his Mysticism 12
2. Development of Ecclesiastical Law 16-23
Development of the papacy into an autocracy. The Papal Decretals 16
The new ecclesiastical law more definitely framed. Union of law and Dogma 19
Jurisprudence as a dominant force 21
3. Revival of science 23-44
Essence of Scholasticism 23
Scholasticism and Mysticism 25
xPreparation in history for mediæval science. Its relation to Greek science. The inherited capital 28
The Carlovingian Era 30
The period of transition 30
The Eleventh Century. The prevailing influence of Realism. The question of the Universals. The Dialecticians 32
“Aristotelianism” 36
The negative and positive significance of the science of Abelard 37
Disciples and opponents of Abelard. Reconciliation of Dogma with Aristotle 42
4. Elaboration of Dogma 45-83
Introduction 45
a. The Berengarian Controversy 46
  Doctrine of Transubstantiation as framed after the Controversy 51
The importance of the Fourth Lateran Council for the doctrines of the Eucharist, Baptism, and Repentance 53
b. Anselm’s doctrine of Satisfaction 54
  Criticism of this doctrine 67
Its limited measure of influence 78
Doctrine of the Merit of Christ. Abelard’s doctrine of Reconciliation 79
Peter Lombard 81
CHAPTER II.--History of Dogma in the Period of the Mendicant Monks, till the beginning of the Sixteenth Century 84-317
  Introduction 84
1. On the history of piety 85-117
St. Francis, the Apostolic life, the Franciscan piety (the Waldensians, and the “Poor” of Lombardy) 85
St. Francis and the Church 91
The doctrine of poverty, the different tendencies, the Fraticelli and the Spirituales 94
Conservative influence of the religious awakening upon Dogma 96
Mysticism and the Mendicant Orders 97
xiMysticism as Catholic piety 97
Description of Mysticism, Pantheism, the rise of Individualism 101
Thomist and Scotist Mysticism 105
Quickened activity in practical life 108
The awakening of the laity, free associations, and preachers of repentance 110
The stages in the development of piety 111
Piety in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; its opposition to the Church 113
Piety, Dogma (unassailed), and the Church; glance forward to the Reformation 116
Gothic architecture as the style of building corresponding with mediæval piety 117
2. On the history of Ecclesiastical Law. The doctrine of the Church 118-149
The supremacy of the papal system; jurisprudence as a commanding influence 118
The leading thoughts in the papal system with regard to the Church 119
The doctrine of the Pope; the new forgeries; infallibility 121
The Concordats; national churches 126
The slight share of theology in fixing the hierarchical conception of the Church 127
The negotiations with the Greeks; Thomas’s conception of the Church 130
The opposition to the hierarchical and papal conception of the Church is to be traced to Augustinianism 132
The conception of the Church held by the opposing parties has a common root with the hierarchical, and differs only in its conclusions 134
Hence the ineffectiveness of its criticism 136
The opposition of the Waldensians, Apocalyptists, Franciscans, Imperialists, and Episcopalists 138
The conception of the Church held by Wyclif and Huss, and their opposition to the hierarchy 141
Criticism of this movement; Dogma, as strictly understood, remains unassailed 146
xiiPositive significance of the Wyclifite and hierarchical conceptions of the Church 147
3. 3. On the history of ecclesiastical science 149-173
The causes of the revival of science at the beginning of the thirteenth century (Arabs, Jews) 150
The victory of Aristotle and of the Mendicant Orders. “Qualified” Realism 151
Scholasticism at its zenith, its nature, and relation to the Church and to reason 153
The science of St. Thomas 157
The “Summa” of St. Thomas 157
Transition to Duns Scotus 160
New stress laid upon reason and authority, Nominalism 161
Probabilism, Casuistry, and fides implicita 162
Elimination of Augustinianism 166
Augustinian reaction in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Bradwardine, Wyclif, Huss, Wesel, Wessel 169
Decline of Nominalism, the re-discovered Plato, the Renaissance 170
4. The Moulding of Dogma in Scholasticism 174-317
The pre-suppositions of the thirteenth century Scholasticism 174
The finis theologiæ (the idea of salvation) and its main elements 174
The old articuli fidei and the doctrine of transubstantiation 176
The threefold task which Scholasticism carried out with regard to Dogma; strained relation with piety 176
a. Revision of the traditional articuli fidei 178
(1) The doctrine of God 178
(2) The doctrine of the Trinity 182
(3) The doctrines of creation, preservation, and government 184
(4) The doctrine of the person of Christ (of the Holy Ghost) 187
The doctrine of the work of Christ (satisfaction and merit) 190
The doctrine of Thomas 191
Of Duns Scotus 196
Disintegration and reaction 198
b. The Scholastic doctrine of the Sacraments 200
Significance and principle 200
xiiiNumber of the Sacraments 201
Definition (Hugo and the Lombard) 204
Their nature, relation of grace to Sacrament 206
Questions in detail 209
The Thomist doctrine of the Sacraments 201
(The Sacraments in their operation, their character 210
Definition, materia, forma, etc. 212
Necessity 213
Effect 214
Cause) 217
The administrator of the Sacrament (minister sacramenti) 217
Conditions of saving reception, disposition 220
Attritio 225
Peculiarities of the Scotist doctrine of the Sacraments 226
The Sacraments singly. Baptism 227
Confirmation 230
The Eucharist 232
Sacrament of Penance 243
(Sorrow 248
Confession 251
Absolution 255
Satisfaction 257
Indulgence 259
Opposition to indulgences; Wyclif, Huss, Wesel, Wessel) 267
Extreme unction 269
Ordination to the priesthood 270
Sacrament of Marriage 272
Transition to the doctrine of grace 275
c. Revision of Augustinianism in the direction of the doctrine of merit 275
The Lombard on grace, freedom, and merit 276
Thomas. Elements of principle in the Scholastic doctrine of grace, the conception of God, grace as participation in the divine nature, merit 279
Thomas’s doctrine of grace (lumen superadditum naturæ, gratia operans et cooperans, præveniens et subsequens), essence of grace, disposition for grace, its effects, forgiveness of sins, love, merits de condigno et de congruo 281
xivHistoric estimate of the Thomist doctrine of grace, connection with Augustine (doctrine of predestination) and Aristotle 295
Thomas on the primitive state, original righteousness (justitia originalis), the Fall, Sin 297
Evangelical counsels (consilia evangelica) 298
The Thomist doctrine of sin and grace faces in two directions 300
The later Scotistic Scholasticism: its doctrines of sin and grace 301
Its doctrines of justification and merit (Bradwardine’s reaction) 308
Supplement: The doctrines of the immaculate conception of Mary, and of her co-operation in the work of redemption 312

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