By the ambassador of the caliph of Bagdad, who employed an Arabian or Chaldaic word that signifies lord and master, (D'Herbelot, p. 825.) It is interpreted by the Byzantine writers of the eleventh century; and the name Soldanus) is familiarly employed in the Greek and Latin languages, after it had passed from the Gaznevides to the Seljukides, and other emirs of Asia and Egypt. Ducange (Dissertation xvi. sur Joinville, p. 238 - 240. Gloss. Graec. et Latin) labours to find the title of Sultan in the ancient kingdom of Persia: but his proofs are mere shadows; a proper name in the Themes of Constantine (ii. 11), an anticipation of Zonaras, etc., and a medal of Kai Khosrou, not (as he believes) the Sassanide of the 6th, but the Seljukide of Iconium of the 13th century (De Guignes, Hist. des Huns, tom. i. p. 246.).