The most authentic account of these precepts, pilgrimage, prayer, fasting, alms, and ablutions, is extracted from the Persian and Arabian theologians by Maracci (Prodrom. part iv. p. 9 - 24), Reland (in his excellent treatise de Religione Mohammedica, Utrecht, 1717, p. 67 - 123), and Chardin (Voyages in Perse, tom. iv. p. 47 - 195.). Marace is a partial accuser; but the jeweller, Chardin, had the eyes of a philosopher; and Reland, a judicious student, had travelled over the East in his closet at Utrecht. The 14th letter of Tournefort (Voyage du Levont, tom. ii. p. 325 - 360, in octavo) describes what he had seen of the religion of the Turks.