The wise and humane sentence of the civilian Paul (l. ii. Sententiarum in Pandect, 1. xxv. tit. iii. leg. 4) is represented as a mere moral precept by Gerard Noodt (Opp. tom. i. in Julius Paulus, p. 567 - 558, and Amica Responsio, p. 591 - 606), who maintains the opinion of Justus Lipsius (Opp. tom. ii. p. 409, ad Belgas. cent. i. epist. 85), and as a positive binding law by Bynkershoek, (de Jure occidendi Liberos, Opp. tom. i. p. 318 - 340. Curae Secundae, p. 391 - 427.). In a learned but angry controversy, the two friends deviated into the opposite extremes.