Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, and Scotland, have received them as common law or reason; in France, Italy, etc., they possess a direct or indirect influence; and they were respected in England, from Stephen to Edward I. our national Justinian (Duck. de Usu et Auctoritate Juris Civilis, l. ii. c. 1, 8 - 15. Heineccius, Hist. Juris Germanici, c. 3, 4, No. 55 - 124. and the legal historians of each country.).