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62. ἥμισυς. In Attic Greek ἥμισυς, like some other adjectives, mostly of quantity, has a peculiar construction. It governs a noun in the genitive, but agrees with it in gender. Thus -

Plat. Phædo 104 A ὁ ἥμισυς τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ ἅπας. Thuc. 5.31.2 ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμισείᾳ τῆς γῆς. Demosth. p. 44, 4.16 τοῖς ἡμίσεσι τῶν ἱππέων.

This idiom is kept up by Hellenistic writers, such as Philo, Strabo, and the translator of Josephus’ Jewish War. It is however very rare in the LXX, occuring only in the following passages -

3 K. [2 Kings} 16:9 ὁ ἄρχων τῆς ἡμίσους (§ 11) τῆς ἵππου. Josh. 4:12, 1 Chr. 5:23 οἱ ἡμίσεις φυλῆς Μανασσή. Tob. 10:10 τὰ ἥμισυ (sic) τῶν ὑπαρχόντων. Ezk. 16:51 τὰς ἡμίσεις τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν. 1 Mac. 3:34, 37 τὰς ἡμίσεις τῶν δυνάμεων.

Elsewhere instead of the Attic idiom we find τὸ ἥμισυ or ἥμισυ, irrespective of the gender and number of the noun which follows, e.g. -

τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ σίκλου Ex. 39:2 ἥμισυ ἀρχόντων 2 Esd. [Ezra] 4:16.

τὸ ἥμισυ αὐτῆς Lvt. 6:20. ἐν ἡμίσει ἡμερῶν Ps. 101:25

τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ αἵματος Ex. 24:6. τὸ ἥμισυ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων Tob. 8:21.

63. πᾶς. a. In classical Greek the rule for πᾶς in the singular is that with the article it is collective, without the article it is distributive -

πᾶσα ἡ πόλις = all the city.

πᾶσα πόλις = every city.

πᾶς differs from ordinary adjectives in taking the predicative position in an attributive sense. Thus while ἀγαθὴ ἡ πόλις means ‘the city is good,’ πᾶσα ἡ πόλις means ‘all the city.’ πᾶς may however take the attributive position, like any other adjective. When it does so, the collective force is intensified -

πᾶσα ἡ πόλις = all the city.

ἡ πᾶσα πόλις = the whole city.

Thus Plato’s expression (Apol. 40 E) ὁ πᾶς χρόνος is rendered by Cicero (T.D. 1.97) perpetuitas omnis consequentis temporis. For other instances of this use in classical authors we may take -

Hdt. 7.46 ὁ πᾶς ἀνθρώπινος βίος. Plat. Rep. 618 B ὁ πᾶς κίνδυνος, Phileb. 67 B οἱ πάντες βόες = all the oxen in the world.

Xen. Anab. 5.6.5 οἱ πάντες ἄνθρωποι.

In such cases there is an additional stress gained by the unusual position assigned to πᾶς.

b. In the LXX the same distinction seems to be maintained. It is true a writer will go from one to the other, e.g. -

Jdg. 16:17,18 καὶ ἀνήγγειλαν αὐτῇ τὴν πᾶσαν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ . . . καὶ εἶδεν Δαλειδὰ ὅτι ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτῇ πᾶσαν τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ -

but so in English we might first say he told her his whole heart, and then add and she saw that he had told her all his heart.

Other instances of the strongly collective force of πᾶς in the attributive position are -

Gen. 45:20 τὰ γὰρ πάντα ἀγαθὰ Αἰγύπτου ὑμῖν ἔσται.

Josh. 4:14 ἐναντίον τοῦ παντὸς γένους Ἰσραήλ.

Wisd. 7:9 ὁ πᾶς χρυσός.

2 Mac. 8:9 τὸ πᾶν τῆς Ἰουδαίας . . . γένος.

Still there is a tendency in the LXX to assimilate πᾶς to adjectives generally and to employ it in the attributive position without any special emphasis.

c. Neither is the rule that πᾶς without the article is distributive at all closely adhered to, e.g. -

Ex. 8:16 ἐν πᾶσῃ γῇ Αἰγύπτου, 16:6 πρὸς πᾶσαν συναγωγὴν υἱῶ Ἰσραήλ.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 7:2 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ.

d. In the plural οἱ πάντες is rare, but may be found -

Jdg. 20:46 οἱ πάντες οὗτοι.

1 Mac. 2:37 Ἀποθάνωμεν οἱ πάντες ἐν τῇ ἁπλότητι ἡμῶν.

2 Mac. 12:40 τοῖς δὲ πᾶσι σαφὲς ἐγένετο. Cp. Aristeas § 36 τοῖς πᾶσι . . . πολίταις.

Αἱ πᾶσαι is still rarer, but see -

3 Mac. 1:1 παραγγείλας ταῖς πάσαις δυνάμεσιν.

Τὰ πάντα is comparatively common, occuring, e.g., in Gen. 1:31, 9:3: Ex. 29:24: Lvt. 19:13: 2 Mac. 10:23, 12:22: 3 Mac. 2:3.

e. In the N.T. the collective use of πᾶς followed by the article is clearly marked in many passages, e.g. -

Gal. 5:14 ὁ . . . πᾶς νόμος. Μτ. 8·34 πᾶσα ἡ πόλις ἐξῆλθεν.

Also the distributive use of πᾶς without the article, as in 1 Cor. 11:4,5 πᾶς ἀνήρ . . . πᾶσα δὲ γυνή. In Rom. 3:19 we have the two usages brought into contrast -

ἵνα πᾶν στόμα φραγῇ, καὶ ὑπόδικος γένηται πᾶς ὁ κόσμος τῷ Θεῷ.

On the other hand there are also instances of πᾶς in the singular and without the article being used collectively, e.g. -

Eph. 2·21 πᾶσα οἰκοδομή.

Mt. 2:3 πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα.

Acts 2:36 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ.

f. In the plural οἱ πάντες is more common in St. Paul than in the LXX. Take for instance -

Phil. 2:21 οἱ πάντες γὰρ τὰ ἑαυτῶν ζητοῦσι. Cp. 2 Cor. 5:14. 1 Cor. 10:17 οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν. Cp. Eph. 4:13. Rom. 11:32 συνέκλεισε γὰρ ὁ Θεὸς τοὺς πάντας εἰς ἀπείθειαν. 2 Cor. 5:10 τοὺς γὰρ πάντας ἡμᾶς κτλ. 1 Cor. 9:22 τοῖς πᾶσι γέγονα πάντα.

οἱ πάντες ἄνδρες.

Τὰ πάντα occurs in Rom. 8:32, 11:36: 1 Cor. 15:27, 12:6, 19: Eph. 5:13: Acts 17:25: Mk. 4:11 and perhaps in other passages.

64. Comparison of Adjectives. Owing to the peculiarity of Hebrew syntax the treatment of this subject mostly falls under the head of Prepositions. We need only notice here that the positive may be put for the comparative.

Gen. 49:12 λευκοὶ οἱ ὀδόντες αὐτοῦ ἢ γάλα.

Dt. 7:17 πολὺ τὸ ἔθνος τοῦτο ἢ ἐγώ, 9·1 ἔθνη μεγάλα καὶ ἰσχυρότερα μᾶλλον ἢ ὑμεῖς.

So in N.T. --

Mt. 18:8,9 καλόν σοι ἐστὶν εἰσελθεῖν . . . ἢ . . . βληθῆναι. Cp. Mk. 9:43, 45.

65. Omission of μᾶλλον. The comparison of attributes may be effected by the use of verbs as well as of adjectives. In such cases the omission of μᾶλλον is common in the LXX.

Nb. 22:6 ἰσχύει οὗτος ἢ ἡμεῖς, 24:7 ὑψωθήσεται ἢ Γὼγ βασιλεία.

Hos. 7:6 ἔλεος θέλω ἢ θυσίαν.

2 Mac. 7:2 ἕτοιμοι γὰρ ἀποθνήσκειν ἐσμὲν ἢ πατρῴους νόμους παραβαίνειν.

Cp. Aristeas § 322 τέρπειν γὰρ οἴομαί σε ταῦτα ἢ τὰ τῶν μυθολόγων βιβλία.

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