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VERBS, 15-33

15. The Verb Εἶναι. ἤμην the 1st person singular of the imperfect, which is condemned by Phrynichus, occurs frequently in the LXX. It is found also in the N.T. --

1 Cor. 13:11: Gal. 1:10, 22: Acts 10:30, 11:5, 17, 22:19, 20: Mt. 25:35: Jn. 11:15. According to the text of Dindorf it occurs even in Eur. Hel. 931. It is a familiar feature of Hellenistic Greek, being common in Philo and Josephus, also in the Pastor of Hermas, and occuring moreover in such authors as Epictetus (Diss. 1.16.19), Plutarch (Pomp. 74), Diogenes Laertius (6.56), Lucian (Asinus 46).

ἦς for ἦσθα, which is condemned by the same authority, occurs in Jdg. 11:35: Ruth 3:2: Job 38:4: Obd. 1:11. Cp. Epict. Diss. 4.1.132.

ἔστωσαν is the only form for the 3d person plural imperative, neither ἔστων nor ὄντων being used. This form is found in Plato (Meno 92 D). See 16 d.

ἤτω or ἔστω occurs in Ps. 103:31: 1 Mac. 10:31, 16:3. So in N.T. 1 Cor. 16:22: James 5:12. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 3.3.4: 1 Clem. 48:5, where it occurs four times.

ἤμεθα for ἦμεν occurs in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 25:16: Baruch 1:19. This form appears in the Revisers’ text in Eph. 2:3.


16. The Termination -σαν. a. Probably the thing which will first arrest the attention of the student who is new to the Greek of the LXX is the termination in -σαν of the 3d person plural of the historical tenses of the active voice other than the pluperfect.

There are in Greek two terminations of the 3d person plural of the historic tenses --

(1) in , (2) in -σαν. Thus in Homer we have ἔβαν and also ἔβησαν. In Attic Greek the rule is that thematic aorists (i.e. those which have a connecting vowel between the stem and the termination) and imperfects take ν, e.g. --


ἔ-λυσ-α-ν, ἔ-λαβ-ο-ν, ἐλάμβαν-ο-ν,

while non-thematic tenses and the pluperfect take -σαν, e.g. --


ἔ-δο-σαν, ἐ-τί-θε-σαν, ἐ-λε-λύκ-ε-σαν

In the Greek of the LXX, which in this point represents the Alexadrian vernacular, thematic 2d aorists and imperfects may equally take -σαν.

Of 2d aorists we may take the following examples --


εἴδοσαν or ἴδοσαν, εἴποσαν, ἐκρίνοσαν, ἐλάβοσαν, ἐπίοσαν, εὕροσαν, ἐφέροσαν (=2d aor.), ἐφάγοσαν, ἐφύγοσαν, ἤλθοσαν, ἡμάρτοσαν, ἤροσαν (Josh. 3:14).

Compounds of these and others abound, e.g. -


ἀπήλθοσαν, διήλθοσαν, εἰσήλθοσαν, ἐξήλθοσαν, παρήλθοσαν, περιήλθοσαν, προσήλθοσαν, συνήθοσαν, ἐνεβάλοσαν, παρενεβάλοσαν, ἐξελίποσαν, κατελίποσαν, ἀπεθάνοσαν, εἰσηγάγοσαν.


b. Instances of imperfects, which, for our present purpose, mean historic tenses formed from a strengthened present stem, do not come so readily to hand. But here are two -



ἐλαμβάνοσαν Ezk. 22:12. ἐφαίνοσαν 1 Mac. 4:50.


These seem to be more common in the case of contracted vowel verbs --



ἐγεννῶσαν Gen. 6:4 εὐθηνοῦσαν Lam. 1:5.
ἐπηξονοῦσαν Nb. 1:18. ἠνομοῦσαν Ezk. 22:11.
ἐποιοῦσαν Job 1:4. κατενοοῦσαν Ex. 33:8.
ἐταπεινοῦσαν Judith 4:9. οἰκοδομοῦσαν 2 Esd. [Ezra] 14:18.
εὐλογοῦσαν Ps. 61:5. παρετηροῦσαν Sus. Θ:12.
ἐδολιοῦσαν Ps. 5:9, 13:3.


Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. 6.2.7 εὐσταθοῦσαν, 9.9.5 ἐδοκοῦσαν.

Such forms occur plentifully in Mss. of the N.T., but the Revisers’ text has only ἐδολιοῦσαν in Romans 3:13 (a quotation from Ps. 13:3) and παρελάβοσαν in 2 Thes. 3:6.


c. The same termination -σαν sometimes takes the place of -εν in the 3d person plural of the optative.


αἰνέσαισαν Gen. 49:8. θηρεύσαισαν Job 18:7.
εἴποισαν Ps. 34:25. ἴδοισαν Job 21:20.
ἐκκόψαισαν Prov. 24:52 καταφάγοισαν Prov. 30:17.
ἐκλείποισαν Ps. 103:35. ὀλέσαισαν Job 18:11, 20:10.
ἔλθοισαν Dt. 33:16: Job 18:9, 11. περιπατήσαισαν Job 20:26.
ἐνέγκαισαν Is. 66:20. ποιήσαισαν Dt. 1:44.
εὐλογήσαισαν Ps. 34:25. πυρσεύσαισαν Job 20:10.
εὕροισαν Sir. 33:9. ψηλαφήσαισαν Job 5:14, 12:25.


d. In Hellenistic Greek generally -σαν is also the termination of the 3d person plural of the imperative in all voices, e.g. --



1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:22 ἀπαγέσθωσαν καὶ ἀποστρεφέτωσαν.


For instances in N.T. see 1 Cor. 7:9, 36: 1 Tim. 5:4: Tit. 3:14, Acts 24:20, 25:5.


17. Termination of the 2d Person Singular of Primary Tenses Middle and Passive. In the LXX, as in Attic, the 2d person singular of the present and futures, middle and passive, ends in -, e.g. ἄρξῃ, φάγῃ, λυπηθήσῃ. The only exceptions to this rule in Attic are βούλει, οἴει, ὄψει, and ἔσει, of which the last is only used occasionally. In the LXX we have ὄψει in Nb. 23:13.


The full termination of the 2d person singular of primary tenses middle and passive (-σαι), which in Attic Greek appears only in the perfect of all verbs and in the present of -μι verbs, as λέ-λυ-σαι, δί-δο-σαι, is occasionally to be found in the LXX in other cases.


ἀπεξενοῦσαι 3 K. [2 Kings} 14:6.

κοιμᾶσαι Dt. 31:16 (A).

κτᾶσαι Sir. 6:7.

πίεσαι Dt. 28:39: Ruth 2:9, 14: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:4: Ps. 127:2: Jer. 29:13 (A): Ezk. 4:11, 12:18, 23:32, 34.

φάγεσαι Ruth 2:14: Ezk. 12:18.

So in N.T. --


καυχᾶσαι Rom. 2:17, 23: 1 Cor. 4:7.

κατακαυχᾶσαι Rom. 9:18.

ὀδυνᾶσαι Lk. 16:25.

φάγεσαι καὶ πίεσαι σύ Lk. 17:8.

The Pastor of Hermas yields us ἐπισπᾶσαι, πλανᾶσαι, χρᾶσαι. Such forms are still used in Modern Greek.

In theory -σαι is the termination of every 2d person singular in the middle and passive voices, as in δί-δο-σαι, λέ-λυ-σαι, so that πί-ε-σαι, is a perfectly regular formation. But in Attic Greek the σ has dropped out wherever there is a connecting vowel, and then contraction has ensued. Thus πίεσαι becomes first πίεαι, and finally πίῃ. Confirmation of this theory is to be found in Homer, where there are many examples of the intermediate form, e.g. ἀναίρεαι, δευήσεαι, ἔρχεαι, εὔχεαι, ἴδηαι, κέλεαι, λέξεαι, λιλαίεαι, μαίνεαι, νέμεαι, ὀδύρεαι, πώλεαι. It is an interesting question whether πίεσαι and φάγεσαι are survivals in the popular speech of pre-Homeric forms, or rather revivals, as Jannaris and others think, on the analogy of the perfect middle and passive of all verbs and of the present middle and passive of -μι verbs.

In καυχᾶσαι and the like, contraction has taken place in the vowels preceding the σ (καυχάεσαι = καυχάσαι). ἀπεχενοῦσαι (3 K. [2 Kings} 14:6) looks like a barbarism for ἀπεξένωσαι.

As against these fuller forms, we sometimes find contracted forms in the LXX, where the -σαι is usual in Attic.

δύνῃ for δύνασαι. Dan. Ο´ 5:16. So in N.T. Lk. 16:2: Rev. 2:2. In Eur. Hec. 253 Porson substituted δύνᾳ for δύνῃ, as being more Attic. δύνασαι itself occurs in Job 10:13, 35:6, 14, 42:2: Wisd. 11:23: Dan. Θ 2:26, 4:15, 5:16: Bel Θ:24.

ἐπίστῃ for ἐπίστασαι. Nb. 20:14: Dt. 22:2: Josh. 14:6: Job 38:4: Jer. 17:16: Ezk. 37:4.


18. Aorist in -α. a. Another inflexional form for the frequency of which the classical student will hardly be prepared is the aorist in -α in other than semivowel verbs. Attic Greek offers some rare instances of this formation, as εἶπ-α, ἤνεγκ-α, ἔχε-α, and in Homer we have such stray forms as κήαντες (Od. 4.231), ἀλέασθαι (Od. 9.274), σεῦα (Il. 20.189). Nevertheless this is the type which has prevailed in the modern language.


b. In Attic the aorist εἶπα occurs more frequently in the other moods than in the indicative (e.g. Plat. Soph. 240 D εἴπαιμεν, Prot. 353 A εἴπατον imperative, Phileb. 60 D εἰπάτω, Meno 71 D εἶπον imperative).

In the LXX this aorist is equally common in the indicative.

εἶπα Dt. 1:20: Ps. 40:5.

εἶπας Gen. 44:23: Judith 16:14. Cp. Hom. Il. 1 106, 108.

εἴπαμεν Gen. 42:31, 44:22, 26.

εἴπατε Gen. 43.29, 44:28, 45:9.

εἶπαν Jdg. 14:15, 18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 17:20, 19:42: 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:6: Tob. 7:5: Jer. 49:2.

εἰπόν Gen. 45:17: Dan. Ο’ 2:7.

εἰπάτω Dan. Θ 2:7.

εἴπατε (imperative) Gen. 50:7. Cp. Hom. Od. 3.427.

εἴπας Gen. 46:2.


c. While the classical aorist ἦλθον is common in the LXX, the form with -α also occurs, especially in the plural.

ἤλθαμεν Nb. 13:28.

ἤλθατε Gen. 26:27, 42:12: Dt. 1:20: Jdg. 11:7.

ἦλθαν Gen. 47:18: Jdg. 12:1: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 17:20, 24:7: 2 Chr. 25:18: Dan. Q 2:2.

ἐλθάτω Esther 5:4, 8: Is. 5:19: Jer. 17:15.

ἔλθατε Prov. 9:5.

εἰσελθάτωσαν Ex. 14:6.


This aorist is common in Mss. of the N.T., but has not been admitted into the Revisers’ text. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 1.4.1 ἦλθαν, .3 ἀπῆλθαν: 1 Clem. 38:3 εἰσήλθαμεν.


d. By the side of εἶδον we have an aorist in -α, especially in the 3d person plural, where its advantage is obvious. (See h below.)

εἴδαμεν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14.

εἶδαν Jdg. 6:28, 16:24: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 6:19: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 10:14, 19.


e. Similarly by the side of ει–λον we have parts formed as though from ει–λα.

καθεῖλαν Gen. 44:11: 3 K. [2 Kings} 19:14.

εἵλατο Dt. 26:18.

ἀνείλατο Ex. 2:5.

ἀπείλατο 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:18.

διείλαντο Josh. 22:8.

ἐξειλάμην 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:18.

ἐξείλατο Ex. 18:4, 8: Josh. 24:10: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 12:11, 17:37, 30:18.

παρείλατο Nb. 11:25.


f. The aorist ἔπεσα occurs frequently in the 3d person plural, but is rare in other parts.

ἔπεσα Dan. Ο´ 8:17. πεσάτω Jer. 44:20 (AS), 49:2 (AS).

ἔπεσας 2 K. [2 Sam.] 3:34. πέσατε Hos. 10:8.


Among compounds we find ἀπεπεσάτωσαν, διέπεσαν, ἐνέπεσαν, ἐπέπεσαν.

So in N.T. --


ἔπεσα Rev. 1:17.

ἔπεσαν Rev. 5:14, 6:13, 11:16, 17:10: Hb. 11:30.

ἐξεπέσατε Gal. 5:4.

Cp. Polyb. 3.19.5 ἀντέπεσαν.


g. Other aorists of the same type are -



ἀπέθαναν Tob. 3:9. ἔλαβαν 2 K. [2 Sam.] 23:16.

ἐγκατέλιπαν 2 Chr. 29:6. ἐφάγαμεν 2 K. [2 Sam.] 19:42.

ἔβαλαν 3 K. [2 Kings} 6:3. ἔφυγαν Jdg. 7:21.

ἐμβάλατε Gen. 44:1.


h. The frequency of the 3d person plural in this form is no doubt due to a desire to differentiate the 3d person plural from the 1st person singular, which are confounded in the historic tenses ending in -ον. It also secured uniformity of ending with the aorist in -σα. In 2 K. [2 Sam.] 10:14 we have this collocation -



εἶδαν . . . ἔφυγαν . . . εἰσῆλθαν . . . ἀνέστρεψαν.

In Jdg. 6:3 we find the anomalous form ἀνέβαιναν followed by συνανέβαινον.


19. Augment. a. The augment with the pluperfect is at times omitted by Plato and the best Attic writers. Instances in the LXX are -



βεβρώκει 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:12. ἐνδεδύκει Lvt. 16:23.
δεδώκειν 2 K. [2 Sam.] 18:11. ἐπεβεβήκει Nb. 22:22.
δεδώκει 3 K. [2 Kings} 10:13 πεπώκει 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:12.
ἐνδεδύκειν Job 29:14.


So in N.T. --


δεδώκει Mk. 14:44. μεμενήκεισαν 1 Jn. 2:19.
δεδώκεισαν Jn. 11:57: cp. Mk. 15:10. πεπιστεύκεισαν Acts 14:23.
ἐκβεβλήκει Mk. 16:9. πεποιήκεισαν Mk. 15:7.
κεκρίκει Acts 20:16.


But in the LXX we occasionally find other historic tenses without the augment, e.g. 2 Esd. [Ezra] 14:18 οἰκοδομοῦσαν. This is especially the case with εἶδον.

ἴδες Lam. 3:59. ἴδον Gen. 37:25, 40:5.
ἴδεν Gen. 37:9, 40:6. πρόιδον Gen. 37:18.


b. In Attic Greek, when a preposition had lost its force and was felt as part of the verb, the augment was placed before, instead of after, it, as ἐκάθευδον, ἐκάθιζον, ἐκαθήμην.

The same law holds in the Greek of the LXX, but is naturally extended to fresh cases, e.g. to προνομεύειν, which in the Alexandrian dialect seems to have been the common word for ‘to ravage.’

ἐπρονομεύσαμεν Dt. 2:35, 3:7. ἠνεχύρασαν Job 24:3.
ἐπρονόμευσαν Nb. 31:9.


c. The aorist ἤνοιξα is already found in Xenophon. In the LXX it is common, though by no means to the exclusion of the form with internal augment. Besides ἤνοιξα itself, which is conjugated throughout the singular and plural, we have also the following --



ἠνοίχθη Nb. 16:32: Ps. 105:17, 108:1. ἤνοιγον 1 Mac. 11:2.
ἠνοίχθησαν Ezk. 1:1. ἠνοίγετο 3 K. [2 Kings} 7:21.
ἠνοιγμένα Is. 42:20.


So also in N.T. --


ἤνοιξε Acts 12:14, 14:27: Rev. 8:1. διηνοιγμένους Acts 7:56.
διήνοιξε Acts 16:14. ἠνοίγη Rev. 11:19.


Besides the Attic form with double internal augment, ἀνέῳξα, the LXX has also forms which augment the initial vowel of this, and so display a triple augment. --

ἠνέῳξε Gen. 8:6: 3 Mac. 6:18.

ἠνεῴχθησαν Gen. 7:11: Sir. 43:14: Dan. 7:10.

ἠνεῳγμένους 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:29: 2 Chr. 6:20, 40, 7:15: Neh. 1:6.

ἠνεῳγμένα 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:52.


So in N.T. --


ἠνεῳγμένον Rev. 10:8.


d. In προφητεύειν the internal augment is wrong, since the verb is formed on the noun προφήτης. In the LXX προεφήτευσεν occurs only in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 18:10 (A) and Sir. 46:20. Nevertheless this is the form which has been everywhere preferred in the Revisers’ text of the N.T.

προεφήτευον Acts 19:6.

προεφήτευσε Mt. 15:7: Mk. 7:6: Lk. 1:67: Jn. 11:51: Jude 14.

προεφήτεύσαμεν Mt. 7:22.

προεφήτευσαν Mt. 11:18.


e. Instances of double augment in the LXX are --


ἀπεκατέστη Ex. 15:27.

ἀπεκατέστησεν 1 Esd. 1:33.

ἠνωχλήθην 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:13. Cp. Dan. 3:50: Dan. Ο’ 6:18.


20. Reduplication a. In verbs compounded with a preposition reduplication is sometimes applied to the preposition.

κεκαταραμένος Dt. 21:23: Sir. 3:16. Cp. Enoch 27:2.

πεπρονομευμένος Is. 42:2. Cp. 19.b.


b. In the form κεκατήρανται (Nb. 22:6, 24:9. Cp. Enoch 27:1,2.) we have what may be called double reduplication.


c. With ῥεριμμένος (Jdg. 4:22) and ἐκρεριμμένην (Jdg. 15:15) may be compared Homer’s ῥερυπωμένα (Od. 6.59). ῥερίφθαι [ῥερῖφθαι] is cited from Pindar by Choeroboscus.


d. The reduplicated present ἐκδιδύσκειν occurs in four passages --

1 K. [1 Sam.] 31:8: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 23:10: Neh. 4:23: Hos. 7:1. It is used also by Josephus. Κιχρᾶν, ‘to lend,’ occurs in three passages --

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:28: Prov. 13:11: Ps. 111:5. κίχρημi is used in this sense by Demosthenes.


e. The verb κράζειν has a reduplicated weak aorist, ἐκέκραξα, which is very common, especially in the Psalms; also a reduplicated strong aorist, though this is very rare.


ἐκέκραγεν Is. 6:3. ἐκέκραγον Is. 6:4.


21. Attic Future. a. What is called the Attic future, i.e. the future out of which σ has dropped, is more common in the LXX than in Attic Greek. Thus the future of ἐλπίζειν, so far as it appears in Attic authors at all, is ἐλπίσω: but in the LXX it is always ἐλπιῶ. Among verbs in -ιζω which take this form of future are --

αἰχμαλωτίζειν ἐγγίζειν κερατίζειν οἰωνίζειν
ἀποσκορακίζειν ἐπιστηρίζειν κομίζειν σαββατίζειν
ἀφαγνίζειν εὐαγγελίζειν μελίζειν συλλογίζειν
ἀφανίζειν καθαρίζειν μερίζειν συνετίζειν
ἀφορίζειν καθίζειν


There is no apparent reason for the contradiction in the future of verbs in -ίζειν. The retention of σ in the future of such verbs is quite exceptional, as in Eccl. 11:4 θερίσει (mid.), Lvt. 25:5 ἐκθερίσεις. Of the two versions of Daniel Ο´ has in 4:29 ψωμίσουσι, while Θ has ψωμιοῦσιν. Μηνίειν has a future in the LXX of the same sort as verbs in -ίζειν.

μηνιῶ Jer. 3:12. μηνιεῖς Lvt. 19:18.
μηνιεῖ Ps. 102:9.


b. In Attic Greek there are a few instances of verbs in -άζειν dropping the σ and contracting in the future. Thus βιβάζειν, ἐξετάζειν have the futures βιβῶ, ἐξετῶ in addition to the full forms. In the LXX the former of these sometimes retains the σ in the future (Dt. 6:7: Ps. 31:8: Is. 40:13: Wisd. 6:3: Sir. 13:11), the latter always: but the tendency which they exemplify is carried out in the case of other verbs in -άζειν. Hence we meet with the following futures --


ἁρπᾷ Lvt. 19:13.

ἁρπῶμαι Hos. 5:14.

ἐκδικᾶται Lvt. 19:18: Dt. 32:43: Judith 11:10.

ἐργᾷ Gen. 4:12, 29:27: Ex. 20:9, 34:21: Lvt. 25:40: Dt. 5:13, 15:19: 2 K.[2 Sam.] 9:10.

ἐργᾶται Lvt. 25:40: Job 33:29.

ἐργῶνται Is. 5:10: Jer. 37:8, 9, 22:13, 41:14: Ezk. 48:19.

κατεργᾷ Dt. 28:39.

κοιμᾷ Dt. 31:16.

κοιμᾶται Job 8:17.


c. Both in the LXX and in the N.T. semivowel verbs, i.e. those with λ, ρ, μ, ν, have a contracted future, as in Attic, e.g. ψαλῶ, σπερεῖς, τεμεῖς, ῥανεῖ.


d. In Attic Greek the future of χέω is still χέω and indistinguishable from the present. In the LXX the future is distinguished by being treated as a contracted tense. Thus we have --


ἐκχεῶ, ἐχεεῖς, ἐκχεεῖ,
ἐκχεεῖτε, ἐκχεοῦσι.


The 1st person plural does not seem to occur.


e. To the contracted futures the LXX adds the post-classical ἑλῶ, from the same stem as ει–λον. This future occurs both in the active and the middle voices, e.g. ἀφελῶ (Nb. 11:17), ἐξελεῖσθε (Josh. 2:13).

So in N.T. --

ἀνελεῖ 2 Th. 2:8.


f. In Attic τελεῖν and καλεῖν are in the future indistinguishable from the present. In the later Greek of the LXX this ambiguity is avoided by the retention of the full form of the future. Thus we have --


συντελέσω, συντελέσεις, συντελέσει,
συντελέσετε, συντελέσουσιν,


and


καλέσω, καλέσεις, καλέσει,
καλέσετε, καλέσουσιν.


g. The future ὀλέσω, which is common in Homer but rare in Attic, does not occur in the LXX, which has only the contracted forms --

ὀλεῖ Prov. 1:32. ὀλοῦνται Prov. 2:22, 13:2, 15:5, 16:33, 25:19.
ὀλεῖται Job 8:13.


h. On the other hand, ἐλάσεις in Ex. 25:11 is the only instance of the future of ἐλαύνω in the LXX.


i. In Attic σκεδάννυμι has future σκεδῶ, but in the LXX it retains the σ, e.g. διασκεδάσω Jdg. 2:1.


22. Retention of Short Vowel in the Future. As a rule in Greek α and ε verbs lengthen the vowel in forming the future. Exceptions are σπάω and χαλάω among α verbs, and among ε verbs αἰνέω, καλέω, τελέω. When the vowel is short in the future, it is also short in the 1st aorist.

To the ε verbs which have the vowel short in the future and 1st aorist we may add from the LXX πονεῖν, φθονεῖν, φορεῖν.

So in N.T. --


ἐφορέσαμεν . . . . . φορέσομεν 1 Cor. 15:49.

Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. 9.13.3, 15.6 ἐφόρεσαν.


23. Aorist of Semivowel Verbs. In Attic Greek semivowel verbs with ᾰ in their stem lengthen the ᾰ into η in forming the 1st aorist (as φαν-, ἔφηνα), except after ι or ρ, when they lengthen into ᾱ (as μιαν-, ἐμίᾱνα, περαν-, ἐπέρᾱνα). See G. .672.

In the LXX many such verbs lengthen into ᾱ when the ᾰ of the stem is preceded by a consonant. Hence we meet with such forms as ἐγλύκανας, ἐκκάθαρον, ἐξεκάθαρα, ἐπέχαρας, ἐπίφανον, ἐποίμανεν, ἐσήμανεν, σημάνῃ, ὑφᾶναι, ὕφανεν, ὑφάνῃς, ψάλατε. In Amos 5:2 ἔσφαλεν is ambiguous, as it might be 2d aorist.

The form καθάρῃς is read in Dindorf’s text of Xen. Ec. 18.8, and in Hermann’s text of Plato Laws 735 we have καθάρῃ in B followed by καθήρειεν in D. The aorist ἐσήμανα is found as early as Xenophon. Cp. Aristeas 16, 33. Ἐκέρδανα was always regarded as good Attic.

Such forms are also to be found in the N.T., e.g. --

ἐβάσκανεν Gal. 3:1. ἐσήμανεν Rev. 1:1.


24. The Strong Tenses of the Passive. The Greek of the LXX displays a preference for the strong over the weak tenses of the passive, i.e. for the tenses which are formed directly from the verbal stem, namely, the 2d aorist and the 2d future. Thus ἠγγέλην, which is not to be found in classical authors, except in a disputed reading of Eur. I.T. 932, occurs frequently (in compounds) in the LXX, and the future passive, when employed, is the corresponding form in -ήσομαι, e.g. Ps. 21:81 ἀναγγελήσεται, Ps. 58:13 διαγγελήσονται.

So again from ῥίπτω we find only the 2d aorist and 2d future passive, e.g. Ezk. 19:12 ἐρρίφη, 2 K. [2 Sam.] 20:21 ῥιφήσεται.


The following are other instances of the same formation: -


βραχήσεται (Βρέχω) Is. 34:3.

γραφήσονται Ezk. 13:9. Cp. Aristeas 32.

διεθρύβησαν Nahum 1:6.

ἐκλεγῆναι Dan. Ο’ 11:35.

ἑλιγήσεται Is. 34:4.

ἐνεφράγη Ps. 62:12.

ἐξαλιφῆναι 1 Chr. 29:4. Cp. Plat. Phaedr. 258 B.

ἐπεσκέπησαν 1 Chr. 26:31.

ἠκαταστάτησαν Tobit 1:15.

ὀρυγῇ Ps. 93:18.

περιεπλάκησαν Ps. 118:61.

συνεφρύγησαν Ps. 101:4.

ὑπετάγησαν Ps. 59:10.


25. The Verbs πεινᾶν and διψᾶν. In Attic Greek these two verbs contract into η instead of ᾱ. In the LXX they contract into ᾱ, and πεινάω further forms its future and aorist in ᾱ instead of η.

ἐὰν πεινᾷ . . . ἐὰν διψᾷ Prov. 25:21. ἐπείνας Dt. 25:18.
διψᾷ (ind.) Is. 29:8.


The parts of πεινᾶν which occur in the future and aorist are πεινάσει, πεινάσετε, πεινάσουσι, ἐπείνασεν, ἐπείνασαν, πεινάσω (subj.), πεινάσωμεν, πεινάσητε.


So also in N.T. --


πεινᾶν Phil. 4:12.

πεινᾷ (ind.) 1 Cor. 11:21.

πεινᾷ . . . . . διψᾷ (subj.) Rom. 12:20 (quoted from Prov. 25:21).

ἐὰν τις διψᾷ Jn. 7:37.

For the future and aorist of πεινᾶν in N.T. see Mt. 12:1, 3, 25:35: Lk. 4:2: Jn. 6:35: Rev. 7:16.


26. The Perfect of ἥκειν. Ἥκειν in the LXX has a perfect ἧκα, which occurs however only in the plural.

ἥκαμεν Gen. 47:4: Josh. 9:12.

ἥκατε Gen. 42:7, 9: Dt. 12:9: 1 Chr. 12:17.

ἥκασι(ν) 18 times.


This form occurs once in the N.T. --

ἥκασι Mk. 8:3.


Cp. 1 Clem. 12:2 in a quotation from Josh. 2:3.


The aorist ἧξα, which is found in late authors, is not used in the LXX.

Wherever the form ἧκε occurs, it is either imperative, as in 2 K. [2 Sam.] 14:32, or imperfect, as in 2 Mac. 4:31, 8:35, 14:4, 26.


27. Presents formed from Perfects. a. From the perfect ἕστηκα there was formed a new present στήκω, which occurs in two or three passages of the LXX.


στήκει Jdg. 16:26. στήκειν 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:11.
στήκετε (imper.) Ex. 14:13 (A).


So in N.T. --


στήκει Rom. 14:4.

στήκετε (ind.) Phil. 1:27.

στήκετε (imper.) 1 Cor. 16:13: Gal. 5:1: Phil. 4:1: 2 Thes. 2:15.

στήκητε 1 Th. 3:8: Mk. 11:25.


b. Similar to this is the verb γρηγορεῖν, formed from ἐγρήγορα. We may conjecture that the pluperfect ἐγηγόρει came to be regarded as a contracted imperfect, and so gave rise to γρηγορῶ.


ἐγρηγόρουν Jer. 38:28.

γρηγορεῖν 1 Mac. 12:27.

γρηγορούντων Neh. 7:3.

γρηγορήσω Jer. 38:28.

ἐγρηγορησε(ν) Jer. 5:6: Bar. 2:9: Dan. Θ 9:14.

ἐγρηγορήθη Lam. 1:14.


From this verb in its turn was formed a new verbal noun γρηγόρησις Dan. Θ 5:11, 14. Cp. also the proper name Γρηγόριος.


So in N.T. --


γρηγορῶμεν 1 Th. 5:6.

γρηγορεῖτε (imper.) 1 Cor. 16:13: Mk. 13:37.

γρηγορήσατε 1 Pet. 5:8.


c. Of like origin is the aorist ἐπεποίθησα, which occurs in Job 31:24. From πεποιθεῖν again we have the noun πεποίθησις 4 K. [2 Kings] 18:19.


d. The tendency to form new presents from perfects is already exhibited in Homer. Thus we have ἀνώγει (Od. 5.139 etc.) formed from ἄνωγα, and γεγωνεῖν (Il. 12.337) from γέγωνα; also the imperfect ἐμέμηκον (Od. 9.439) from μέμηκα.


28. The Verb ἱστάναι and its Cognates. By the side of the forms in -μι there existed from Homer downwards alternative forms in -ω. Some of these present themselves in the LXX. Thus we have the following parts of the transitive verb ἱστάω.

ἱστῶσιν 1 Mac. 8:1.

ἱστῶν 2 K. [2 Sam.] 22:34: Job 6:2: Ps. 17:33: Sir. 27:26: Is. 44:26: 1 Mac. 2:27.


Among its compounds we may notice the following -


καθιστῶν Dt. 17:15: Dan. Ο’ 4:34. Cp. Aristeas 228.

καθιστᾷ. . . . . μεθιστᾷ Dan. Θ 2:21.

μεθιστῶν . . . . . καθιστῶν Dan. Ο’ 2:21.

μεθιστῶσι 1 Mac. 8:13.

μεθιστᾶν 3 Mac. 6:24.


So in N.T. --

ἱστῶμεν Rom. 3:31. συνιστῶν 2 Cor. 10:18.
ἀποκαθιστᾷ Mk. 9:12. συνιστῶντες 2 Cor. 4:2, 6:4.

The form ἱστάνειν, also transitive, occurs in Ezk. 17:14. Cp. Aristeas 280, 281 καθιστάνειν.


So in N.T. --


μεθιστάνειν 1 Cor. 13:2. συνιστάνειν 2 Cor. 3:1. Cp. 5:12, 10:12.

Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 1.3.4 μεθιστάνει.


Later Greek has a transitive perfect ἕστακα, which is implied by the rare, though classical, perfect passive ἕσταμαι (Plat. Tim. 81 D). Thus in [Plato] Axiochus 370 D we find περιέστακας.

ἑστάκαμεν 1 Mac. 11:34.

ἀφέστακα Jer. 16:5.

καθέστακα Jer. 1:10, 6:17.

καθεστάκαμεν 1 Mac. 10:20. Cp. Aristeas 37.


So in N.T. --


ἐξεστακέναι Acts 8:11.


In Josh. 10:19 there occurs the irregular perfect imperative ἑστήκατε with connecting vowel α instead of ε. With this form may be compared πεποίθατε Ps. 145:3: Is. 50:10: Jer. 9:4.


29. The Verb τιθέναι and its Cognates. This verb does not offer much scope for remark. The imperfect is formed, so far as it occurs, from the alternative form τιθέω.


ἐτίθεις Ps. 49:18, 20. ἐτίθει Prov. 8:28.


This is in accordance with classical usage, which however has ἐτίθην in the 1st person. Ἐτίθη is read by A in Esther 4:4.

The strong and weak aorists active seem to be about equally frequent. The only person of the latter that is missing is the 2d person plural.
Ἐθήκαμεν is found (2 Esd. [Ezra] 15:10: Is. 28:15) and ἔθηκαν is common.

The 2d person singular of the strong aorist middle is always ἔθου, as in Attic.

In 1 Esd. 4:30 we find ἐπιτιθοῦσαν formed from the thematic τιθέω.


30. The Verb διδόναι and its Cognates. The present tense runs thus --


δίδωμι, δίδως, δίδωσι,
διδόασιν.


In Ps. 36:21 we find 3d person singular διδοῖ from the cognate διδόω. The imperfect runs thus --


ἐδίδουν, ἐδίδους, ἐδίδου,
ἐδίδουν or ἐδίδοσαν.


Ἐδίδουν as 3d person plural occurs in 2 Chr. 27:5: 3 Mac. 3:30; ἐδίδοσαν in Judith 7:21: Jer. 44:21: Ezk. 23:42: 3 Mac. 2:31.


The imperative active δίδου is found in Tobit 4:16: Prov. 9:9, 22:26. The 1st aorist is common in the singular and in the 3d person plural of the indicative, ἔδωκαν.

The 2d aorist subjunctive runs thus --


δῶ, δῷς, δῷ,
δῶτε, δῶσι.


Of the above forms only διδοῖ, 3d person plural ἐδίδουν, and ἔδωκαν are non-Attic.


The optative of the 2d aorist has the stem vowel long -


δῴης Ps. 84:7, 120:3.

δῴη 29 times. In Job 6:8, 19:23: Sir. 45:26 δοίη occurs as a variant. Cp. Aristeas 185 δῴη.


So in N.T. --


δῴη 2 Th. 3:16: Rom. 15:5: Eph. 1:17: 2 Tim. 1:16, 18, 2:25.


31. The Verb ἱέναι and its Cognates. a. The simple verb ἱέναι does not occur in the LXX. It has therefore to be studied in its compounds. The regular inflexion of the imperfect in Attic is supposed to be ἵην, ἵεις, ἵει, though in Plat. Euthyd. 293 A we have 1st person singular ἠφίειν. Ἠφίεις therefore (Sus. O’ 53) may be considered classical.


b. The following two passages will set before us the points that have to be noticed with regard to ἀφιέναι --


Ex. 32:32 εἰ μὲν ἀφεῖς . . . ἄφες. 1 Esd. 4:7 εἶπεν ἀφεῖναι, ἀφίουσιν.


In the former of these ἀφεῖς must be from ἀφέω, a cognate thematic form to ἀφίημι, but without the reduplication.

In the latter we have a new formation which treats the reduplication as though it were itself the stem. Of this new verb we have the following parts --


ἀφίω Eccl. 2:18. ἀφίουσι 1 Esd. 4:50.
ἀφίων Eccl. 5:11.


In the N.T. also we find ἀφεῖς (Rev. 2:20) and ἤφιε(ν) (Mk. 1:34, 11:16)

the imperfect of ἀφίω. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 3.

7.1 ἀφίουσιν.

The weak aorist occurs in the singular and in the 3d person plural ἀφῆκαν, e.g. Jdg. 1:34.


c. A thematic verb συνιεῖν existed in classical Greek. Theognis 565 has the infinitive συνιεῖν: Plat. Soph. 238 E uses ξυνιεῖς. Of this verb we find the following parts in the LXX, if we may trust the accentuation --


συνιεῖν 3 K. [2 Kings} 3:9, 11. συνιοῦσιν (dat. pl.) Prov. 8:9.
συνιῶν 2 Chr. 34:12.


So also in N.T. --


ὁ συνιῶν Rom. 3:11. In Mt. 13:23 the R.V. text has συνιών.

συνιοῦσι (3d pl.) Mt. 13:13: 2 Cor. 10:12.


d. In addition to this we find a verb of new formation like ἀφίω -


συνίεις Tob. 3:8: Job 15:9, 36:4.

συνίει Prov. 21:12, 29: Wisd. 9:11.

συνίων Dan. Θ 8:5, 23, 27 and passim.

συνιόντων (gen. pl.) 2 Chr. 30:22.


In 2 Chr. 26:5 συνιόντος and 2 Esd. [Ezra] 8:16 συνιόντας the accent seems to be misplaced.

The new participle συνίων has not entirely ousted the -μι form in the LXX. We have συνιείς Ps. 32:15: οἱ συνιέντες Dan. 12:3: συνιέντας Dan. Θ 14: τῶν συνιέντων Dan. 11:35.


e. The 3d person plural of the 1st aorist ἧκαν, which occurs in Xen. Anab. 4.5.18, is used in the LXX in its compound ἀφῆκαν.


f. The verb συνίειν is to be met with also in the Apostolic Fathers -


συνίω Herm. Past. Mdt. 4.2.1, 10.1.3.

συνίει 4.2.2.

συνίουσιν 10.1.6.

σύνιε 6.2.3, 6: Sim. 9.12.1.

συνίων Barn. Ep. 12:10.


g. The 2d person singular present middle προίῃ in Job 7:19 is doubtless formed on the analogy of λύῃ, but might be reached from προίεσαι by loss of σ and contraction.


32. The Imperatives ἀνάστα and ἀπόστα, etc. It is the by-forms in which account for these imperatives (ἀνάστα = ἀνάστα-ε). Ἀνάστα in the LXX is used interchangeably with ἀνάστηθι. Thus in Dan. 7:5 Ο´ has ἀνάστα, while Θ has ἀνάστηθι. But the same writer even will go from on to the other. Thus in 3 K. [2 Kings} 19 we have ἀνάστηθι in v. 5 and ἀνάστα in v. 7, and again in 3 K. [2 Kings} 20 ἀνάστα in v. 15 and ἀνάστηθι in v. 18. So also Ps. 43:24, 27 ἀνάστηθι . . . ἀνάστα. Ἀπόστα occurs in Job 7:16, 14:6, 21:14.


So in N.T., where we find in addition the 3d person singular and the 2d person plural.


ἀνάστα Acts. 12:7: Eph. 5:14. καταβάτω Mt. 27:42.
ἀνάβα Rev. 4:1. ἀναβάτε Rev. 11:12.


Cp. Herm Past. Mdt. 6.2.6, 7 ἀπόστα . . . ἀπόστηθι, Vis. 2.8 ἀντίστα.


Similar forms are to be found even in the Attic drama and earlier.

ἔμβα Eur. Elec. 113: Ar. Ran. 377.

ἐπίβα Theognis 845.

ἔσβα Eur. Phoen. 193.

κατάβα Ar. Ran. 35, Vesp. 979.

πρόβα Eur. Alc. 872: Ar. Ach. 262.


33. Special Forms of Verbs.


αἱρετίζειν denominative from αἱρετός.

ἀμφιάζειν 4 K. [2 Kings] 17:9: Job 29:14, 31:19 (in 40:5 ἀμφίεσαι) = ἀμφιεννύναι.

ἀποκτέννειν Ex. 4:23: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 4:12: 4 K. [2 Kings] 17:25: Ps. 77:34, 100:8: Wisd. 16:14: Hab. 1:17: Is. 66:3: Dan. Θ 2:13: 3 Mac. 7:14.ἀποτιννύειν Gen. 31:39: Ps. 68:5: Sir. 20:12.ἐλεᾶν for ἐλεεῖν. Ps. 36:26, 114:6: Prov. 13:9, 14:21, 31, 21:26, 28:8: Sir. 18:14: Tobit 13:2: 4 Mac. 6:12, 9:3. So in N.T., Jude 22, 23. Cp. 1 Clem. 13:2: Barn. Ep. 20:2.

ἐλούσθης Ezk. 16:4.

ἑόρακας 2 K. [2 Sam.] 18:11. Maintained by some to be the true Attic form.

ἐρρηγώς for ἐρρωγώς. Job. 32:19.

ἔσθειν for ἐσθίειν. Lvt. 7:15, 11:34, 17:10, 19:8, 26: Sir. 20:16. Old poetic form. Hom. Il. 24.415: Od. 9.479, 10.273.

κάθου for κάθησο. Gen. 38:11: Jdg. 17:10: Ruth 3:18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:23, 22:5, 23: 4 K. [2 Kings] 2:2, 4, 6: Ps. 109:1: Sir. 9:7. Formed on the analogy of λύου. Κάθησο itself occurs in 2 Chr. 25:19. In Ezk. 23:41 we have imperfect ἐκάθου. So in N.T., Mt. 22:44: Mk. 12:36: Lk. 20:42: Acts 2:34: Hb. 1:13 (all quotations from Ps. 109:1): James 2:3.

μαιμάσσειν Jer. 4:19.

οἶσθας Dt. 9:2. Cp. Eur. Ion 999 (Dindorf).

πιάζειν for πιέζειν. Song 2:15: Sir. 23:21. Πιέζειν occurs only in Micah 6:15 in the original sense of ‘to press.’

ῥάσσειν Jer. 23:39 and eight other passages.


34. Adverbs. Hellenistic Greek supplied the missing adverb to ἀγαθός. Ἀγαθῶς occurs in Aristotle Rh. 2.11.1. In the LXX it is found in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 20:7: 4 K. [2 Kings] 11:18: Tob. 13:10.

Among adverbs of time we may notice ἐκ πρωίθεν and ἀπὸ προωίθεν as peculiar to the LXX. For the former see 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:27: 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:26: 1 Mac. 10:80; for the latter Ex. 18:13, 14: Ruth 2:7: Job 4:20: Sir. 18:26: 1 Mac. 9:13. Similar to these among adverbs of place is ἀπὸ μακρόθεν, Ps. 138:2. Such expressions remind us of our own double form ‘from whence,’ which purists condemn.


In the Greek of the LXX pouv is used for ποῖ, just as we commonly say ‘where’ for ‘whither.’

Jdg. 19:17 Ποῦ προεύῃ, καὶ πόθεν ἔρχῃ;

Cp. Gen. 37:31: Josh. 2:5, 8:10: Jdg. 19:17: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14: Zech. 2:2.

Ποῖ occurs only in a doubtful reading in Jer. 2:28, and has there the sense of ποῦ.

Similarly οὗ is used for οἷ, which is not found at all.

Jer. 51:35 οὗ ἐὰν βαδίσῃς ἐκεῖ.

Cp. Gen. 40:3: Ex. 21:13: 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:10: Ezk. 12:16.


So in N.T. --


ποῦ = ποῖ 1 Jn. 2:11, 3:8, 8:14: Hb. 11:8.

ὅπου = ὅποι James 3:4.


ὅποι does not occur in Biblical Greek.


35. Homerisms. The Ionic infusion which is observable in the Greek of the LXX may possibly be due to the use of Homer as a schoolbook in Alexandria. This would be a vera causa in accounting for such stray Ionisms as κυνομυίης, μαχαίρῃ, ἐπιβεβηκυίης, and the use of σπείρης in the Papyri; possibly also for γαιῶν, γαίαις. Such forms also as ἐπαοιδός, ἔσθειν, ἐτάνυσαν (Sir. 43:12), μόλιβος, χάλκειος, χείμαρρος, πολεμιστής, have an Homeric ring about them.


36. Movable Consonants. ν ἐφελκυστικόν is freely employed before consonants, as in Gen. 31:15, 41:55: Dt. 19:1: Ruth 2:3: Jdg. 16:11.

To ἄχρι and μέχρι ς is sometimes appended before a vowel and sometimes not.

Jdg. 11:33 ἄχρις Ἄρνων. Josh. 4:23 μέχρις οὗ.
Job 32:11 ἄχρι οὗ. 1 Esd. 1:54 μέχρι οὗ.
2 Mac. 14:15 ἄχρι αἰῶνος. Job 32:12 μέχρι ὑμῶν.


Ἀντῑκρύ and ἄντῐκρυς differ from one another by more than the σ. The former does not occur at all in the LXX, the latter in Swete’s text only once, 3 Mac. 5:16 ἄντικρυς ἀνακλιθῆναι αὐτοῦ.

In the Revisers’ text of the N.T. we find ἄχρι before a consonant in Gal. 4:2; ἄχρις οὗ 1 Cor. 11:26, 15:25: Gal. 3:19, 4:19: Hb. 3:13; μέχρις οὗ Mk. 13:30; μέχρις αἵματος Hb. 12:4; ἀντικρὺ Χίου Acts 20:15.


37. Spelling. In matters of spelling Dr. Swete’s text appears to reflect variations in the Mss.


a. The diphthong ει is often replaced by ι, as in 1 Esd. 1:11 χαλκίοις compared with 2 Chr. 35:13 χαλκείοις. This is especially the case with feminine nouns in -εία, as

ἀπωλία, δουλία, λατρία, πλινθία, συγγενία, ὑγία, φαρμακία.


Neuters plural in -εῖα also sometimes end in -ια with recession of accent, as --


ἄγγια Gen. 42:25. πόρια Gen. 45:17.


In the pluperfect of ἵστημι again we sometimes find ι for ει --


ἱστήκει Jdg. 16:29. ἐφιστήκει Nb. 23:6,17.

παριστήκει Gen. 45:1.


So also in the future and 1st aorist of λείχω, as --


ἐκλίξει, ἐκλίξαι, ἔλιξαν, λίξουσιν.


On the other hand εἰδέαι for ἰδέαι (nom. pl. of ἰδέα) occurs in Dan. Θ 1:13.


b. ν in composition is sometimes changed into μ before a labial and sometimes not, as --


συμβιβάσω Ex. 4:12. συνβιβασάτω Jdg. 13:8.


Before a guttural or π, ν is often retained, instead of being turned into γ, as -


ἐνκάθηται, ἐνκρατεῖς, ἐνκρούσῃς, ἐνκρυφίας, ἐνποίῃ, ἐνχωρίῳ.


But on the other hand -


σύγκρισις, συγγενία.


c. In the spelling of λαμβάνειν μ appears in parts not formed from the present stem, as --


λήμψομαι, λήψῃ, λήμψεσθε, ἐλήμφθη, καταλήμψῃ.


This may indicate that the syllable in which the μ occurs was pronounced with β. In modern Greek μπ stands for β, and we seem to find this usage as early as Hermas (Vis. 3.1.4), who represents the Latin subsellium by συμψέλιον. Cp. Ἁμβακούμ for Habakkuk.


d. The doubling of in the argument of verbs is often neglected, as -


ἐξερίφησαν, ἔρανεν, ἐράπιζον, ἔριψεν.


e. The following also may be noticed -


ἐραυνᾶν for ἐρευνᾶν Dt. 13:14.

μιερός, μιεροφαγία, μιεροφαγεῖν, μιεροφονία all in Maccabees only.

τεσσεράκοντα Dt. 9:9, 11: Josh. 14:7.

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