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Verse 22. All the saints salute you. All in Rome, where this epistle was written. No individuals are specified, perhaps because none of the Christians at Rome were personally known to the church at Philippi. They would, however, feel a deep interest in a church which had thus the confidence and affection of Paul. There is reason to believe that the bonds of affection among the churches then were much stronger than they are now. There was a generous warmth in the newness of the Christian affections the first ardour of love; and the common trials to which they were exposed would serve to bind them closely together.

Chiefly they that are of Caesar's household. That is, of Nero, who was at that time the reigning emperor. The name Caesar was given to all the emperors after the time of Julius Caesar, as the name Pharaoh was the common name of the kings of Egypt. The phrase here used—"the household of Caesar"—may refer to the relatives of the emperor; and it is certainly possible that some of them may have been converted to Christianity. But it does not of necessity refer to those related to him, but may be applied to his domestics, or to some of the officers of the court that were more particularly employed around his person and as it is more probable that some of them would be converted than his own relatives, it is more safe to suppose that they were intended. See Barnes "Php 1:13".

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