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Verse 28. Beside those things that are without. In addition to these external trials, these trials pertaining' to the body, I have mental trials and anxieties resulting from the necessary care of all the churches. But on the meaning of these words, commentators are not agreed. Rosenmuller supposes that the phrase means, "Besides those things that come from other sources, "that I may omit other things.". Beza, Erasmus, Bloomfield, and some others, suppose that the passage means those things out of the regular routine of his office. Doddridge, "Besides foreign affairs." Probably the sense is, "Apart from the things beside," (cwriv twn parektov;) not to mention other matters; or, if other matters should be laid aside, there is this continually rushing anxiety arising from the care of all the churches. That is, this would be enough in itself. Laying aside all that arises from hunger, thirst, cold, etc., this continual care occupies my mind, and weighs upon my heart.

That which cometh upon me daily. There is great force in the original here. The phrase rendered "that which cometh upon me" means, properly, "that which rushes upon me." The word (episustasiv means, properly, a concourse, a crowd, hence a tumult; and the idea here is, that these cares rushed upon him, or pressed upon him like a crowd of men or a mob that bore all before it. This is one of Paul's most energetic expressions, and denotes the incessant anxiety of mind to which he was subject.

The care of all the churches. The care of the numerous churches which he had established, and which needed his constant supervision. They were young; many of them were feeble; many were made up of heterogeneous materials; many composed of Jews and Gentiles mingled together, with conflicting prejudices, habits, preferences; many of them were composed of those who had been gathered from the lowest ranks of life; and questions would be constantly occurring, relating to their order and discipline, in which Paul would feel a deep interest, and which would naturally be referred to him for decision. Besides this, they had many trials. They were persecuted, and would suffer much. In their sufferings Paul would feel deep sympathy, and would desire, as far as possible, to afford them relief. In addition to the churches which he had planted, he would feel an interest in all others; and doubtless many cases would be referred to him, as an eminent apostle, for counsel and advice. No wonder that all this came rushing on him like a tumultuous assembly ready to overpower him.

{d} "care of all the churches" Ac 15:36-41

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