Book 15 - PAUL'S FIRST LETTER TO TIMOTHY
With people, places, definitions, map ......
But first - a word of Explanation about the three Teaching or Pastoral Letters - 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus, c AD64-67:
According to strong tradition and indirect evidence, Paul was not executed in c AD64 during the Nero persecutions. Instead, after being released from prison some time before, he continued his travels, visiting such places as Crete, Macedonia, Nicopolis in Achaia, Troas, Miletus, and Corinth, and perhaps even reaching Spain. Then he was re-arrested, tried and executed in c AD67. During his travels, he wrote two of his three "pastoral" or teaching letters - the First Letter to Timothy and the Letter to Titus. Then under sentence of death in Rome, his Second Letter to Timothy.
Writer: The apostle Paul
Date: c AD66, assuming Paul was released from house arrest in Rome and continued his travels
Where written: perhaps Macedonia
Reader: Timothy, Paul's disciples and friend, and now a minister in Ephesus
Why: Paul writes to the young Timothy to encourage and advise him on his conduct and work as a minister;
According to Some Modern Scholarship: Written by an unknown Christian towards the end of the 1st century, using Paul's name and some of his original material to give the letter authority
Map - Paul Writes his First Pastoral or Teaching Letter to Timothy
Map Key: Letter possibly from 1 to 2
PAUL INSTRUCTS TIMOTHY TO DEFEND THE TRUE GOSPEL
GREETINGS TO TIMOTHY
1 Timothy 1:1-2 - Paul, Jesus Christ's messenger by command of God our saviour and Christ our hope, to Timothy my true son in the faith: grace, mercy and peace be to you from God our Father and Jesus Christ our master.
PAUL INSTRUCTS HIM TO STAY IN EPHESUS AND DEAL WITH FALSE TEACHERS
1 Timothy 1:3-4 - I am repeating in this letter the advice I gave you just before I went to Macedonia (... presumably after his release from prison in Rome) and urged you to stay at Ephesus. I wanted you to do this so that you could order certain persons to stop inventing new doctrines and leave hoary old myths and interminable genealogies alone. They only raise queries in men's minds without leading them to faith in God.
1 Timothy 1:5-7 - The ultimate aim of the Christian minister (such as Timothy) .... is to produce the love which springs from a pure heart, a good conscience and a genuine faith. Some seem to have forgotten this and to have lost themselves in endless words. They want a reputation as teachers of the Law (or scribes), yet they fail to realise the meaning of their own words, still less of the subject they are so dogmatic about.
PAUL INSTRUCTS TIMOTHY TO DEFEND THE TRUE GOSPEL
THE LAW IS NEEDED TO CONTROL THE WICKED MAN; THE GOSPEL TO GUIDE THE GOOD ONE
1 Timothy 1:8-11 - We know, of course, that the (Jewish) Law is good in itself and has a legitimate function. Yet we also know that the Law is not really meant for the good man, but for the man who has neither principles nor self-control, for the man who is really wicked, who has neither scruples nor reverence. Yes, the Law is directed against the sort of people who attack their own parents, who kill their fellows, who are sexually uncontrolled or perverted, or who traffic in the bodies of others. It is against liars and perjurers - in fact it is against any and every action which contradicts the wholesome teaching of the glorious Gospel which our blessed God has given and entrusted to me (Paul).
CHRIST CAME TO SAVE SINNERS; LIKE PAUL, NO ONE IS BEYOND SALVATION
1 Timothy 1:12-17 - I am deeply grateful to our Lord Jesus Christ (to whom I owe all that I have accomplished) for trusting me enough to appoint me his minister, despite the fact that I had previously blasphemed his name, persecuted his Church and damaged his cause. I believe he was merciful to me because what I did was done in the ignorance of a man without faith, and then he poured out his grace upon me, giving me tremendous faith in, and love for, himself. This statement is completely reliable and should be universally accepted:- "Christ Jesus entered the world to rescue sinners". I realise that I was the worst of them all, and that because of this very fact God was particularly merciful to me. It was a kind of demonstration of the extent of Christ's patience towards the worst of men, to serve as an example to all who in the future should trust him for eternal life.
So to the king of all ages, the immortal, invisible, and only God, be honour and glory for ever and ever!
TIMOTHY IS TOLD TO HOLD ON TO HIS FAITH; PAUL NAMES TWO MEN WHO DID NOT
1 Timothy 1:18-20 - Timothy my son, I give you the following charge. (And may I say, before I give it to you, that it is in full accord with those prophecies made at your ordination - as a minister - which sent you out to battle for the right armed only with your faith and a clear conscience. Some, alas, have laid these simple weapons contemptuously aside and, as far as their faith is concerned have run their ships on the rocks. Hymenaeus and Alexander are men of this sort, and as a matter of fact I had to expel them from the Church to teach them not to blaspheme.)
Hymenaeus - A false teacher, probably from Ephesus where Timothy is now working. In 2 Timothy 2:17, Hymenaeus is again condemned by Paul, this time in association with a man named Philetus.
INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING PUBLIC WORSHIP
1 Timothy 2:1-2 - (Some of Paul's instructions on worship ....) Here then is my charge: First, supplications, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings should be made on behalf of all men: for kings and rulers in positions of responsibility, so that our common life may be lived in peace and quiet, with a proper sense of God and of our responsibility to him for what we do with our lives.
UNIQUE CLAIMS OF CHRIST: THERE IS ONLY ONE GOD, AND JESUS CHRIST IS THE ONLY MEDIATOR BETWEEN HIM AND MAN
1 Timothy 2:3-6 - In the sight of God our saviour this (... all people, including their rulers) is undoubtedly the right thing to pray for; for his purpose is that all men should be saved and come to realise the truth. And that is, that there is only one God, and only one intermediary between God and men, Jesus Christ the man. He gave himself as a ransom for us all - an act of redemption which happened once, but which stands for all times as a witness to what he is.
PAUL APPOINTMENT AS AN APOSTLE TO THE GENTILES
1 Timothy 2:7 - I (Paul) was appointed proclaimer and messenger (apostle) of this great act of his (Jesus), to teach (incredible as it may sound) the Gentile world to believe and know the truth.
1 Timothy 2:8 - I want the men to pray in all the churches with sincerity, without resentment or doubt in their minds.
1 Timothy 2:9-15 - The women (in church) should be dressed quietly, and their demeanour should be modest and serious. The adornment of a Christian woman is not a matter of an elaborate coiffure, expensive clothes or valuable jewellery, but the living of a good life. A woman should learn quietly and humbly. Personally, I don't allow women to teach, nor do I ever put them into positions of authority over men (but see Paul's reference to Phoebe, a deaconess in his letter to the Romans) - I believe their role is to be receptive. (My reasons are that man was created before woman. Further, it was Eve and not Adam who was first deceived and fell into sin. Nevertheless I believe that women will come safely through child-birth if they maintain a life of faith, love, holiness and gravity).
INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING THE APPOINTMENT OF CHURCH LEADERS
1 Timothy 3:1-13 - It is quite true to say that a man who sets his heart on holding office has laudable ambition. Well, for the office of a bishop (or Overseer or Leader) a man must be of blameless reputation, he must be married to one wife only, and be a man of self-control and discretion. He must be a man of disciplined life; he must be hospitable and have the gift of teaching. He must be neither intemperate nor violent, but gentle. He must not be a controversialist nor must he be fond of money-grabbing. He must have proper authority in his own household, and be able to control and command the respect of his children. (For if a man cannot rule in his own house how can he look after the Church of God?). He must not be a beginner in the faith, for fear of his becoming conceited and sharing Satan's downfall. He should, in addition to the above qualifications, have a good reputation with the outside world, in case his good name is attacked and he is caught by the devil that way.
Deacons, similarly, should be men of serious outlook and sincere conviction. They too should be temperate and not greedy for money. They should hold the faith as a sacred trust, with complete sincerity. Let them serve a period of probation first, and only serve as deacons if they prove satisfactory. Their wives should share their serious outlook, and must be women of discretion and self-control - women who can be trusted. Deacons should be men with only one wife, able to control their children and manage their own households properly. Those who do well as deacons earn for themselves a certain legitimate standing, as well as gaining confidence and freedom in the Christian faith.
PAUL'S REASON FOR WRITING, EVEN THOUGH HE HOPES TO COME SOON
1 Timothy 3:14-15a - At the moment of writing I hope to be with you soon (in Ephesus, travelling possibly from Macedonia), but if there should be any considerable delay then what I have written will show you the sort of character men of God's household ought to have.
THE MYSTERY OF CHRIST'S COMING
1 Timothy 3:15b-16 - (God's household .... is, remember), the Church of the living God, the pillar and the foundation of the truth. No one can deny that this religion of ours is a tremendous mystery, resting as it does on the one who showed himself as a human being, and met, as such, every demand of the Spirit in the sight of angels as well as of men. Then, after his restoration to the Heaven from whence he came, he has been proclaimed among men of different nationalities and believed in all parts of the world.
HOW TIMOTHY SHOULD DEAL WITH FALSE TEACHERS
PAUL WARNS TIMOTHY ABOUT THOSE WHO WILL LOSE THEIR CHRISTIAN FAITH
1 Timothy 4:1-2 - God's Spirit specifically tells us that in later days there will be men who abandon the true faith and allow themselves to be spiritually seduced by teachings of the devil, teachings given by men who are lying hypocrites, whose consciences are as dead as seared flesh.
- Priestly celibacy remains a tradition in some parts of the Christian Church, but it does not appear to have been an issue in the early Church as this and other New Testament verses show. However, Paul does point to the advantages of celibacy in his First Letter to the Corinthians:
1 Timothy 4:3a - These men (false teachers) forbid marriage ....
1 Timothy 4:3b-5 - ..... command abstinence from food - good things which, in fact, God intends to be thankfully enjoyed by those who believe in him and know the truth. Everything God made is good, and is meant to be gratefully used, not despised. The holiness or otherwise of a certain food, for instance, depends not on its nature but on whether it is eaten thankfully or not, It is consecrated by the man who has accepted the message, and thanks God for food.
1 Timothy 4:6-7 - You will be doing your duty as Christ's minister if you remind your church members of these things (false teaching), and you will show yourself as one who owes his strength to the truth of the faith he has absorbed and the sound teaching he has followed. But steer clear of all these stupid Godless fictions. Take time and trouble to keep yourself spiritually fit.
1 Timothy 4:8-11 - Bodily fitness has a certain value, but spiritual fitness is essential both for this present life and for the life to come. There is no doubt about this at all, and Christians should remember it. It is because we realise the paramount importance of the spiritual that we labour and struggle. We place our whole confidence in the living God, the saviour of all men, and particulary of those who believe in him. These convictions should be the basis of your instruction and teaching.
1 Timothy 4:12-16 - (Paul speaking to the younger Timothy) ..... Don't let people look down on you because you are young; see that they look up to you because you are an example to them in your speech and behaviour, in your love and faith and sincerity. Concentrate until my arrival on your reading and on your preaching and teaching. Never forget that you received the gift of proclaiming God's Word when the assembled elders laid their hands on you. Give your whole attention, all your energies, to these things, so that your progress is plain for all to see. Keep a critical eye both upon your own life and on the teaching you give, and if you continue to follow the line I have indicated you will not only save your own soul but the souls of many of your hearers as well.
HOW TIMOTHY SHOULD DEAL WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHURCH MEMBERS
1 Timothy 5:1-2 - Don't reprimand a senior member of your church, appeal to him as a father. Treat the young men as brothers, and the older women as mothers. Treat the younger women as sisters, and no more.
1 Timothy 5:3-16 - You should treat with great consideration widows who are really alone in the world. But remember that if a widow has children or grandchildren it is primarily their duty to show the genuineness of their religion in their own homes by repaying their parents for what has been done for them, and God readily accepts such service.
But the widow who is really alone and desolate can only hope in God, and she will pray to him day and night. The widow who plunges into all the pleasure that the world can give her is killing her own soul. You should therefore make the following rules for the widows to avoid abuses:
1) You should make it clear that for a man to refuse to look after his own relations, especially those actually living in his house, is a denial of the faith he professes. He is far worse than a man who makes no profession.
2) Widows for your church list should be at least sixty years of age, should have had only one husband and have a well-founded reputation for having lived a good life. Some such questions as these should be asked:- has she brought up her children well, has she been hospitable to strangers, has she been willing to serve fellow-Christians in menial ways, has she relieved those in distress, has she, in a word conscientiously done all the good she can?
3) Don't put the younger widows on your list. My experience is that when their natural desires grow stronger than their spiritual devotion to Christ they want to marry again, thus proving themselves unfaithful to their first loyalty. Moreover, they get into habits of slackness by being so much in and out of other people's houses. In fact they easily become worse than lazy, and degenerate into gossips and busybodies with dangerous tongues.
4) My advice is that younger widows should, normally, marry again, bear children and run their own households. They should certainly not be the means of lowering the reputation of the church, although some, alas, have already played into the enemy's hands.
5) As a general rule it should be taken for granted that any Christian, man or woman, who has a widow in the family should do everything possible for her, and not allow her to become the church's responsibility. The church will then be free to look after those widows who are alone in the world.
1 Timothy 5:17-20 - Elders with a gift of leadership should be considered worthy of respect, and of adequate salary, particularly if they work hard at their preaching and teaching. Remember the scriptural principle: 'You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads the grain', and 'The labourer is worthy of his wages'. Take no notice of charges brought against an elder unless they can be substantiated by proper witnesses. If sin is actually proved, then the offenders should be publicly rebuked as a salutary warning to others.
FAVOURITISM; PAUL'S INSISTENCE ON IMPARTIALITY
1 Timothy 5:21 - Timothy, I (Paul) solemnly charge you in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the holy angels to follow these orders (on dealing with problems in the church) with the strictest impartiality and to have no favourites.
1 Timothy 5:22 - Never be in a hurry to ordain a man (laying on of hands), or you may be making yourself responsible for his sins. Be careful that your own life (as a minister) is pure.
TIMOTHY'S HEALTH, PAUL'S ADVICE
1 Timothy 5:23 - By the way, I (Paul) should advise you to drink wine in moderation, instead of water. It will do your stomach good and help you to get over your frequent spells of illness.
1 Timothy 5:24-25 - Remember that some men's sins are obvious, and are equally obviously bringing them to judgment. The sins of other men are not apparent, but are dogging them, nevertheless, under the surface. Similarly some virtues are plain to see, while others, though not at all conspicuous, will eventually make themselves felt.
1 Timothy 6:1-2 - Christian slaves (employees) should treat their masters with respect, and avoid causing dishonour to the name of God and our teaching. If they have Christian masters they should not despise them because they work for brothers in the faith. Indeed they should serve them all the better because they are thereby benefiting those who have the same faith and love as themselves. This is the sort of thing you should teach
FALSE CHRISTIAN TEACHING, FALSE PROPHETS, CULTS
1 Timothy 6:3-5 - ... if anyone tries to teach some doctrinal novelty which is not compatible with sound teaching (which we base on Christ's own words and which leads to Christ-like living), then he is a conceited idiot! His mind is a morbid jumble of disputation and argument, things which lead to nothing but jealousy, quarrelling, insults and malicious innuendoes - continual wrangling, in fact, among men of warped minds who have lost their real hold on the truth but hope to make some profit out of the Christian religion.
1 Timothy 6:6-8 - There is a real profit, of course (Paul describing the pursuit of wealth), but it comes only to those who live contentedly as God would have them live. We brought absolutely nothing with us when we entered the world and we can be sure we shall take absolutely nothing with us when we leave it. Surely then, as far as physical things are concerned, it is sufficient for us to keep our bodies fed and clothed.
1 Timothy 6:9-10 - ... men who set their hearts on being wealthy expose themselves to temptation. They fall into one of the world's traps, and lay themselves open to all sorts of silly and wicked desires, which are quite capable of utterly ruining and destroying their souls. For loving money leads to all kinds of evil, and some men in the struggle to be rich have lost their faith and caused themselves untold agonies of mind.
1 Timothy 6:11-12 - ... you (Timothy, the minister), the man of God, keep clear of such things (the pursuit of wealth). Set your heart not on riches, but on goodness, Christ-likeness, faith, love, patience and humility. Fight the worthwhile battle of the faith, keep your grip on that life eternal to which you have been called, and to which you boldly professed your loyalty before many witnesses.
WARNINGS ABOUT WEALTH; FINAL WARNINGS TO TIMOTHY
TIMOTHY'S DUTY AS A MINISTER UNTIL CHRIST RETURNS
1 Timothy 6:13-16 - I (Paul) charge you (Timothy) in the sight of God who gives us life, and Jesus Christ who fearlessly witnessed to the truth before Pontius Pilate, to keep your commission (as a minister) clean and above reproach until the final coming of Christ. This will be, in his own time, the final dénouement of God, who is the blessed controller of all things, the king over all kings and the master of all masters, the only source of immortality, the one who lives in unapproachable light, the one whom no mortal eye has ever seen or ever can see. To him be acknowledged all honour and power for ever, amen!
1 Timothy 6:17-19 - Tell those who are rich in this present world not to be contemptuous of others, and not to rest the weight of their confidence on the transitory power of wealth but on the living God, who generously gives us everything for our enjoyment. Tell them to do good, to be rich in kindly actions, to be ready to give to others and to sympathise with those in distress. Their security should be invested in the life to come so that they may be sure of holding a share in the life which is permanent.
PAUL'S FINAL WARNING TO HOLD TO CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE; A BLESSING
1 Timothy 6:20-21 - O Timothy, guard most carefully your divine commission. Avoid the Godless mixture of contradictory notions which is falsely known as "knowledge" - some have followed it and lost their faith.
Grace be with you.
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