QUESTIONS ABOUT THE NEW TESTAMENT
NEW TESTAMENT - PEOPLE, PLACES, DEFINITIONS
Part 1 of 2
A - Agabus - Agrippa I, Herod - Agrippa II, Herod - Alexander - Ananias - Andrew the apostle - Annas - Antipas, Herod - Anti-Semitism - Antonius Felix - Apocrypha - Apocrypha, New Testament - Apollos - Apostles - Apphia - Aquila & Priscilla - Aramaic - Archelaus - Archippus - Aretas - Aristarchus - Aristobulus - Artemas - Augustus - Ave Marie
B - Barnabas - Barsabbas - Bartholomew the apostle - Bathsheba - Benedictus - Bernice - Bethany on the far side of the Jordan - Bible - Bible translations - Bishop - Bodmer papyri - Brothers of Jesus
C - Caiaphas - Caligula - Candace - Canon - Canon, New Testament - Centurion - Cephas - Chester Beatty papyri - Chief priest - Chloe's people - Circumcision - Citizens, Roman - Claudia - Claudius, Emperor - Codex - Codex Alexandricus - Codex Sinaiticus - Codex Vaticanus - Corinth - Covenant - Crispus - Crispus - Christians of Rome - Cyrenius
D - Damaris - Damascus - Deacons - Dead Sea Scrolls - Demas - Demetrius - Devil, the - Didymus - Dionysius - Disciple - Drusilla
E - Elders - Emperor's of Rome - Epaphras - Epaphroditus - Ephesus - Erastus - Ethnarch - Eunice - Euodias
F - Faith - Felix, Antonius - Festus, Porcius
G - Gadara - Gadarenes - Gaius - Galatia - Gallio - Gamaliel - Genealogy of Jesus - Gentiles - Gerasa - Gerasenes - Gergesa - Gergesenes - Gloria, the - Gold - Golgotha - Governor's of Judea - Gutenberg Bible
H - Herod Agrippa I - Herod Agrippa II - Herodias - Herod Antipas - Herod Family - Herodians - Herod's party - Herod the Great - High Priest - Holy - Holy of holies - Hymenaeus
I - Incense - Israel and Judah, Kings of the United Kingdom of - Israel, Outline history of - Italian Regiment
J - Jacob - James - James the apostle - James son of Alphaeus - Jason - Jesus, Brothers of - Jesus, Genealogy - Jewish Bible - Jewish people - Joanna - John - John Mark - John the apostle - Joseph - Judah, Kings of - Judas - Jude the apostle - Judas Barsabbas - Judea, Governor's of - Justification - Justus
K - Kingdom of Heaven
L - Lamb of God - Lamb, Passover - "Law and Prophets" - Law, the - Lazarus - Leprosy - Levi - Levites - Linus - Lord's Prayer - Lucius - Luke - Lydia - Lysanias - LXX
M - Magdala, Mary of - Magdalene, Mary - Magnificat, the - Manaen - Man, Son of - Marcion Canon - Mark - Mark, mother of - Mary - Masoretic text - Matthew the apostle - Matthias the "13th" apostle - Melchizedek - Myrrh
N - Nathanael - Nazarene - Nero - New Testament, Books of - Nicolas - Nunc Dimittis, the
O - Onesimus - Onesiphorus - Our Father, the
P - Pagans - Papyri - Palestine - Passover - Passover lamb - Patriarch - Patriarchs, the - Paulus, Sergius - Paul of Tarsus - Pentecost - Peter the apostle - Pharisees - Philemon - Philip - Philip (Herod) - Philippi - Philip the apostle - Philip the evangelist - Philip the tetrarch - Phoebe - Pilate, Pontius - Place of the Skull - Pontius Pilate - Porcius Festus - Prisca - Priscilla - Prodigal - Pudens
Q - Quirinius
R - Rahab - Roman citizens - Rome, Emperor's of - Roman Empire - Rome, the Christians of - Rufus - Ruth - Rylands papyri
S - Sadducees - Salome - Salvation - Samaritan - Santification - Satan - Saul of Tarsus - Scribes - Scripture - Secundus - Septuagint (LXX) - Sergius Paulus - Silas - Silvanus - Simeon - Simon - Simon Peter the apostle - Simon the apostle - Simon the tanner - Simon the Zealot - Skull, Place of - Slaves - Son of Man - Sopater - Sosipater - Sosthenes - Stephanas - Stephen - Syntache - Syriac - Syrian Antioch
T - Tabernacle - Talents - Tamar - Tarsus - Tax collectors - Temple - Tenth-part - Tertius - Tetrarch - Thaddaeus - Thessalonica - Thomas the apostle - Tiberius - Timothy - Tithe - Titius Justus - Titus - Trophimus - Tychicus
V - Vow - Vulgate
W - Wormwood - "Writings"
Z - Zealot - Zebedee, sons of - Zebulun and Naphtali - Zion
Agabus (Acts 11) - He re-appears 15 years later in c AD58 at the home of Stephen the Evangelist in Caesarea. This time he warns Paul not to continue his journey to Jerusalem where he will be arrested and handed over to the Romans (Acts 21:10)
Agrippa I, Herod - see Herod Family
Agrippa II, Herod - see Herod Family
Alexander (Acts 4) - The name Alexander appears five times in the New Testament:
In the Gospels:
(1) Alexander, son of Simon of Cyrene who carried the cross of Jesus to Calvary;
In the Acts of the Apostles:
(2) Alexander (Acts 4) , a member of the Sanhedrin;
(3) Alexander, a Jew of Ephesus present during the silversmith's riot towards the end of the apostle Paul's stay there, c AD56 or 57. He was either trying to defend Paul's companions,Gaius and Aristarchus, or more likely disclaiming Jewish responsibility for Paul's teaching;
In the two Letters to Timothy:
(4) Alexander the false teacher expelled by Paul along with Hymenaeus from the church (probably at Ephesus, or Troas?), described in Paul's First Letter to Timothy (1:20), written c AD66; and
(5) Alexander the coppersmith, who in Paul's words as he awaits execution in Rome in c AD67 "did me a great deal of harm". Alexander may have been in Ephesus by then as Paul warns Timothy to be careful of him (2 Timothy 4:14)
Alexander (4) and (5) could be the same man, and possibly the same as Alexander (3). After the Ephesus riots, Alexander the Jew could have become a Christian, but over the years turned against Paul. He may than have shared responsibility for Paul's arrest at Ephesus or Troas, where Paul left his cloak and books (2 Timothy 4:13)
Ananias (Acts 5) - Three Ananias' appear in the Acts of the Apostles:
(1) Ananias (Acts 5), husband of Sapphira;
(2) Ananias, the disciple who heals the blinded Saul (Paul) after his encounter with the risen Jesus on the road to Damascus, c AD34. Twenty five years later, when Paul defends himself before the Jewish crowds in Jerusalem, he describes how Ananias, a reverent and highly respected Jew had, at God's command, played an important part in his conversion (Acts 22:12)
(3) Ananias, the high priest in Jerusalem at the time of Paul's arrest and later trial in Caesarea (c AD58). See also High Priest
Andrew the apostle - Brother of Simon Peter, a fisherman. Andrew was originally a disciple of John the Baptist. After the death and resurrection of Jesus, claims are that Andrew preached in Achaia (southern Greece) and Scythia (Ukraine and southern Russia - St. Andrew is the patron saint of Russia), and was crucified at Patras in Achaia. A later tradition describes him as being crucified in a spread-eagled position - hence the St. Andrew's cross of Scotland.
Annas (Luke 3) - see High Priest
Antipas, Herod - see Herod Family
Anti-Semitism - In parts of the New Testament, the issue of anti-Semitism has to be faced. More particularly anti-Judaism, as the Semites include many of the peoples of the Middle East such as the Arabs. But first the facts - Jesus was a Jew, the apostles were Jews, he was followed by Jews, preached his Gospel mainly to Jews and all identified authors of the New Testament other than possibly Luke were Jews.
Jesus was thus not anti-Jewish! His confrontations were not with the people of his race and culture and religion, but with the thinking and behaviour of some Jewish religious and secular leaders and their followers. However, by the time the Gospels were mostly written and especially John's, the Jewish authorities had persecuted the small Christian sect, martyred a number of Christian leaders, and the Jewish revolt of AD66-73 had been ruthlessly suppressed by the Roman army and Jerusalem destroyed. The destruction of the Jewish capital and the Temple must have confirmed in the Gospel writer's eyes, that Jesus was right and the Jewish authorities wrong.
The Gospels therefore, no matter how strident their tone can be (and especially John, who refers to "Jews" where the other Gospels would be more specific - Sadducees, Pharisees, High Priest etc.) are not anti-Jewish. Instead they are against the dogma and hypocrisy of man-made religion, and for freedom in relationship with God's son, Jesus Christ.
Antonius Felix - see Judea, Governor's of
Apocrypha - From the Greek "things hidden away". Old Testament books of doubtful authority included in the later Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate versions, but not in the original Jewish Bible. Written mostly in the four centuries before the birth of Christ, they include: Tobit - Judith - parts of Esther - First and Second Book of Macabees - Book of Wisdom - Ecclesiasticus (as distinct from the "canonical" Ecclesiastes) - Baruch - parts of Daniel collected together as the Old Testament Apocrypha The term is also applied to gospels, acts, letters and apocalypse of the early Christian era that were not included in the New Testament canon. See also Canon.
Apocrypha, New Testament - Many gospels, letters, apocalypse and acts circulated within the early Christian communities that were not included within the "Canon". Amongst the most valued were the: Epistle to the Corinthian church by Clement, bishop of Rome (c AD96); The Didache or The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (c 120); The Epistle of Barnabas (c 130), and The Shepherd of Hermas (c 140). See also Canon.
Apollos (Acts 18) - After Priscilla and Aquila had taught him more about Christ's Gospel, Apollos moved from Ephesus to Corinth (Acts 19:1). As an eloquent and persuasive preacher, he obviously made such an impact on the Corinthian Christians, they split into factions - some for Paul, others for Apollos or Cephas (the apostle Peter). Some even for Christ! Later in Paul's Third Journey, c AD56/57, Apollos was back in Ephesus working with Paul, who dealt with these splits in his First Letter to the Corinthians (1:12; 3:4-6). At the end of the Letter (16:12), Paul tells them that Apollos will return to Corinth as soon as "God wills". According to tradition Apollos became the first bishop of Corinth. Ten years later in c AD66, Apollos is in Crete with Titus, and about to leave on another journey (Titus 3:13).
Apostles - Greek for "sent away", "a messenger". The twelve disciples chosen by Jesus and sent out to heal and to preach the Gospel - the brothers Simon Peter and Andrew, James and John the sons of Zebedee, Philip, Bartholomew (or Nathanael), Matthew (or Levi), Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus (or Judas, son of James), Simon the Patriot, and Judas Iscariot (who betrayed him, and was later replaced by Matthias). The title is also applied to Paul of Tarsus, and to some other disciples at times
Apphia - see Philemon & Apphia
Aquila & Priscilla (or Prisca) (Acts 18) - After meeting Paul in Corinth, they sail with him from Cenchrea as he returns to Palestine in c AD52 at the close of his Second Journey (Acts 18:18). However, they remain at Ephesus, and after meeting Apollos the Alexandrian Jew, teach him about the Gospel of Jesus (Acts 18:26). Still in Ephesus, they are included in Paul's greetings to the church in Corinth (1 Corinthians 16:19) written in c AD56 or 57 during his Third Journey.
The edict against the Jews in Rome by Emperor Claudius in c AD50, having been lifted or found unworkable, Aquila and Priscilla apparently returned to Rome by c AD57 because they are listed in Paul's greetings to the Christians of the imperial city (Romans 16:3). The last mention of them is in Paul's Second Letter to Timothy 4:19 in c AD67. Paul sends his greetings to Ephesus, which they were either visiting or had moved back to possibly for business reasons (tent-making). This one couple shows how people of the Roman Empire could travel with an ease that was not to return until the mid-19th century.
In the seven mentions of this much valued husband and wife team, Priscilla is placed first five times - perhaps reflecting her important role in the early church
Aramaic - Ancient Semitic language related to Hebrew. It became the common language across the Middle East from the 6th century BC. By the time of Jesus, it had partly replaced Hebrew as the language of Palestine especially in Galilee.
Archelaus (Herod) - see Herod Family
Archippus (Colossians 4) - From the Letter to Philemon written at this time, Archippus is usually identified as the son of Philemon.
Aretas (2 Corinthians 11) - King of Nabatea (9BC-AD40), capital Petra, apparently ruled Damascus even though it was a city of the Decapolis. His daughter was the first wife of Herod Antipas. Antipas divorced her for his niece Herodias, the mother of Salome who was responsible for the death of John the Baptist. King Aretas avenged his daughter's treatment by going to war against Antipas, who only survived with Roman help.
Aristarchus (Acts 19) - Aristarchus is one of Paul's companions travelling to Jerusalem with him (Acts 20:4). Two or three years later he is again a companion of Paul in the hazardous voyage to Rome (Acts 27:2). He presumably stayed with Paul in prison, as he is included in the greetings to the church at Colossae (Colossians 4:10) and to Philemon (verse 24)
Aristobulus - see Herod Family
Artemas (Titus 3) - This is the only mention of Artemas in the New Testament. According to tradition he became bishop of Lystra in southern Asia Minor.
Augustus - see Rome, Emperor's of
Ave Marie, The (Luke 1) - "Greetings to you, Mary. O favoured one! - the Lord be with you!" (taken from Luke 1:28b. A more traditional rendering is "Rejoice highly favoured one, the Lord is with you; blessed are you among women").
Barnabas (Acts 4) - Barnabas plays an important, but often unrecognised part in the growth of the early Church. When the fiery anti-Christian Saul, now the Christian Paul, first arrived back in Jerusalem in c AD37, it was Barnabas who vouched for him (Acts 9:27). When the Jerusalem church heard about the conversion of Gentiles in Syrian Antioch, they sent Barnabas (11:22). And it was Barnabas who brought Paul from Tarsus to work with him there (11:25). A year or two later, Barnabas and Paul took famine relief to Jerusalem (11:30), returning to Syrian Antioch with Barnabas' cousin John Mark (12:25). And it is this team that set out on the First Missionary Journey (13:1).
Barnabas and Paul travelled through Cyprus before crossing to Asia Minor, where at Perga, John Mark left to return to Jerusalem (Acts 13:13). The two continued their often dangerous, but ultimately successful missionary journey through much of southern Asia Minor, bringing the Gospel to many Gentiles before returning to Syrian Antioch (14:26). There, attempts were made by some Jewish Christians to make Gentile converts follow Jewish Law. So Paul and Barnabas (note that Paul's name now comes first) travelled to Jerusalem (Acts 15:4) for what became known as the Council of Jerusalem (15:5). There, vital decisions were made that helped ensured Christianity did not become a Jewish sect (15:12).
Paul and Barnabas returned to Syrian Antioch with two representatives of the Jerusalem church, one of whom was Silas - Silvanus in Greek (Acts 15:30), and prepared for the Second Missionary Journey in c AD49 (15:36). As they did, they clashed over Mark's previous "desertion". So while Paul went with Silas through Asia Minor, Barnabas took Mark on a journey to his home island of Cyprus (15:39).
The only references to Barnabas thereafter are in Paul's letters. In 1 Corinthians 9:6 Paul joins his own name with Barnabas to comment on their treatment as apostles. In Galatians 2:9, he describes their welcome in Jerusalem, probably when they brought famine relief (Acts 11:30). Then, back in Syrian Antioch with the apostle Peter, how Barnabas was nearly led astray by the "Judaisers" (Galatians 2:13). Finally, in Colossians 4:10 he identifies Mark and Barnabas as cousins
Barsabbas, Judas - see Judas Barsabbas
Bartholomew the apostle - Also Nathanael. The missionary work of Bartholomew is linked with Armenia (present day Armenia, eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, north western Iran) and India. Other locations include Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopia and Persia (Iran). Traditionally he met his death by being flayed or skinned alive, and then beheaded. Derbent, north of present day Baku on the Caspian Sea may have been his place of martyrdom. Alternatively he may have suffered this cruel fate in what is now India.
Bathsheba (Matt 1) - possibly a Hittite, who committed adultery with King David. He then had her husband Uriah, killed in battle
Benedictus, The (Luke 1) - "Blessings on the Lord, the God of Israel, because he has turned his face towards his people and has set them free! And he has raised up for us a standard of salvation in his servant David's house! Long, long ago, through the words of his holy prophets, he promised to do this for us, so that we should be safe from our enemies and secure from all who hate us. So does he continue the mercy he showed to our forefathers. So does he remember the holy agreement he made with them and the oath which he swore to our father Abraham, to make us this gift: that we should be saved from the hands of our enemies, and in his presence should serve him unafraid in holiness and righteousness all our lives.
"And you (John), little child, will be called the prophet of the most high, for you will go before the Lord to prepare the way for his coming. It will be for you to give his people knowledge of their salvation through the forgiveness of their sins. Because the heart of our God is full of mercy towards us, the first light of Heaven shall come to visit us - to shine on those who lie in darkness and under the shadow of death, and to guide our feet into the path of peace." (Luke 1:68-79, a canticle known as "The Benedictus" in Christian prayer-books. The full title is "Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel" - "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel".)
Bernice - see Herod Family
Bethany on the far side of the Jordan (John 1) - Not to be confused with the Bethany near Jerusalem in Judea, home of Lazarus who was raised from the dead. Bethany-across-the-Jordan in the province of Perea is sometimes called Bethabara in ancient manuscripts.
Bible - From the Greek "biblia" for books, a form of "biblos" = papyrus. Byblos was a port in Phoenicia which exported papyrus. See also Canon.
Bible translations -
Early Translations of the Latin Vulgate: 8th, 10th and Later Cen - In Western Europe, religious works and small portions of the Vulgate were translated into a number of languages, including Anglo-Saxon. Examples of Anglo-Saxon works are John's Gospel by the Venerable Bede in the 8th century; also the translations of King Alfred in the 10th century.
Early Translation of the Latin Vulgate into English: 14th Cen - The first translation was made by John Wycliffe. He finished the New Testament about 1380, and started on the Old Testament, friends completing the work.
European: 15th to 19th Cen - Translations in approximate date order within each century:
15th cen - German, Italian, Catalan, Czech
16th cen - Dutch, French, English, Swedish, Danish, Spanish, Polish, Slavonic, Icelandic, Slovenian, Welsh, Hungarian
17th cen - Finnish, Irish, Rumanian, Latvian
18th cen - Lithuanian, Estonian, Portuguese
19th cen - Gaelic, Serbo-Croat, Slovak, Norwegian, modern Greek, Bulgarian, Basque, Russian
Worldwide, excluding Europe: 17th to 19th Cen - Translations complete or part in approximate date order by century and continent:
17th cen America - Massachusetts Indian (Mass.)
18th cen Asia - Tamil, Malay
19th cen Africa - Malagasy, Amharic, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Yoruba, Sudanese, kiSwahili
America - Cree Indian, Labrador Eskimo, Sioux/Dakota
Asia - Bengali, Chinese, Turkish, Hindi, Burmese, Persian, Urdu, Armenian, Javanese, Thai, Japanese, Taiwanese, Kashmiri
Pacific - Tahitian, Hawaiian, Samoan, Maori, Tongan, Fijian
English language: 16th and 17th Cen, Major Translations in the English Language - As part of the Reformation, a series of increasingly authoritative and official translations were made within the English Protestant church. This started with the 1525 "Tyndale Bible", and ended in 1611 with the "King James" or "Authorized Version", which reigned supreme in the English-speaking world well into the 20th century. The Catholic translation from the Latin Vulgate at this time was the 1610 "Douay Bible". Over this period, and later, various translations and revisions were made by Protestant scholars, but failed to gain acceptance over the King James Version. The Catholic Douay Bible was officially revised in the 18th century as the Challoner versions.
English language: 19th and early 20th Cen, First Modern English and American Versions - In 1885, a revision of the King James Bible, the "Revised Version" was published in England, followed by the "American Standard Version" in 1901. Up to the Second World War, a number of individual authors translated the New Testament into modern speech. During this period the Catholic Bible remained the Douay-Challoner version.
English language: latter half of 20th Cen, American and English Versions - A number of major translations and revisions have been made since World War 2. All attempt to get even closer to the original texts, while being more readable and understandable by contemporary society. Well-known titles, mostly American with the dates of publication of the entire Bible - New and Old Testament, include:
1952 - "Revised Standard Version"
1965 - "Amplified Bible"
1966 - "Jerusalem Bible" (British Catholic version)
1970 - "New English Bible" (British)
1971 - "New American Standard Bible"
1971 - "The Living Bible" (a paraphrase)
1976 - "Good News Bible"
1978 - "New International Version"
1982 - "New King James Version"
1989 - "Revised English Bible" (British)
1990 - "New Revised Standard Version"
Many of these versions are recorded on CD-ROM discs for computer use. Yet nearly 400 years on, the 1611 King James Version" is usually included along with its modern equivalents
Worldwide: end of 20th Cen - The Bible, in whole or part, has been translated into some 1,750 languages and dialects and the work continues. By continent, the totals with numbers of complete Bibles in brackets are:
Africa 500 (100)
Americas 400 (15)
Asia and Pacific 800 (125)
Europe 50 (over 40 complete)
World total 1,750 (280 complete Bibles)
Bishop (or overseer; Philippians 1) - "Bishop" from overseer, "episkopos" in Greek. In the New Testament, the word "overseer" - traditionally "bishop" - is only used a few times, often in association with deacon and with no clear definition of its function. The present role of bishop only developed later in the life of the Church. In the J B Phillips version, "guardian" or "having oversight" is sometimes found
Bodmer papyri (P66) - 2nd/3rd cen, part of John's Gospel. From Egypt. In Bodmer Library, Geneva, Switzerland. See also Papyri.
Brothers of Jesus (Acts 1) - Probably included James, later head of the church in Jerusalem, and author of the Letter of James. Also Judas (or Jude), author of the Letter of Jude.
Caiaphas (Luke 3) - see High Priest
Caligula - see Rome, Emperor's of
Candace (Acts 8) - The title of the queens of what is now the Sudan, then referred to as Ethiopian
Canon - From the Greek "a rule". Books of the Old and New Testaments accepted as authentic by the Christian Church. The "Canon" of the Protestant church does not include the "Deuterocanonical" Old Testament Apocrypha of the Catholic and Orthodox churches. However their historical value is accepted.
Canon, New Testament - The criteria for the acceptance of a book into the New Testament were:
Was the author an apostle, or did he have close associations with an apostle - men such as Mark, Luke, the author of Hebrews?
Was the subject and its treatment acceptable as Holy Scripture?
Did the book have universal appeal to the Church?
Was the book unmistakably inspired by God?
Canon, New Testament, Development of: 3rd and 4th Cen - Irenaeus, Tertullian, and other Church Fathers had confirmed by this time that only the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were approved. Also that the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's thirteen Letters, and the First Letters of Peter and John were accepted as scripture. Thus 20 of the present 27 books were "canonical" within 150 years or so of Jesus' death and resurrection. The main arguments against the seven that were eventually included are:
Hebrews - The author was not known, and although often attributed to Paul, it differed in style and vocabulary to his other writings;
James - The author refers to himself as a "servant of Christ", not an apostle. Also the Letter was written to early Jewish converts and not to the Universal Church;
Second Peter - Differs from First Peter in style and vocabulary;
Second and Third John - The author refers to himself as a "presbyter" or "elder", and not an apostle;
Jude - The author calls himself a "servant of Christ" not an apostle, and quotes from the apocryphal Old Testament book of Enoch;
Revelation - John calls himself servant and brother.
In this period, the disputes over these seven books was settled in their favour, and the canon finally confirmed by the Church. The New Testament apocrypha were not accepted as "canonical"
Centurion (Matt 8) - The main unit of the highly professional and much-feared Roman army was the 6,000 strong legion under the command of an imperial Legate. It consisted of six cohorts, each under a Tribune, with cohorts divided into "centuries" of approximately 100 soldiers commanded by a Centurion. They had the same reputation as a tough regimental sergeant-major in any modern army. A number of centurions appear in the New Testament, some quite prominently:
In the Gospels:
(1) The centurion in Matthew 8 whose servant was healed by Jesus;
(2) The centurion present at the crucifixion (Matthew 27:54); and
In the Acts of the Apostles:
(3) Cornelius from Caesarea, the first named Gentile to become a Christian through the teaching of the apostle Peter (Acts 10:1);
(4) Those centurions involved in Paul's arrest and imprisonment in Jerusalem and his journey to Caesarea (Acts 22:25; 23:17,23); and
(5) Julius who escorts Paul to Rome (Acts 27:1)
Cephas - see Peter the apostle
Chester Beatty papyri (P45, P46, P47) - 3rd cen, much of New Testament. Found in Egypt. Mostly in Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ireland; parts in University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor. See also Papyri.
Chief priest (Matt 2) - "Priest" from the Greek "presbyter" for an "elder". Members of "high priestly" families, who held senior positions in the Jerusalem Temple under the High Priest. In the time of Jesus, they were usually from an aristocratic Sadducee background, and the High Priest might be chosen from among them. Both scribes and chief priests are often linked with elders in the New Testament. Elders from the Old English, "old". A title used throughout the Old Testament, and in the New Testament Gospels and Acts for Jewish religious officials and leaders. Later in the New Testament, in the Acts of the Apostles, and some of the Letters, "elders" refers to leaders in the early Christian Church
Chloe's people (1 Corinthians 1) - Presumably members - freemen or slaves - of the household of the unknown Chloe from Corinth. They must have visited Ephesus and told Paul about some of the church's difficulties; difficulties now confirmed verbally and in writing following the arrival of Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus, 1 Corinthians 16:17
Christians of Rome, The (Romans 16) - As listed in Paul's Letter to the Romans, apart from Priscilla & Aquila, and possibly Rufus, little is known from the New Testament about any of the others. However:
(1) Many were slaves, and others possibly members of the elite. Narcissus was a man's surname; his household would include his slaves;
(2) Kinsmen Andronicus, Junias (or Junia) and Herodion were Jewish Christians;
(3) Eight or nine are women - Priscilla, Mary, Junia? Tryphena and Tryphosa (sisters?), Persis, the mother of Rufus, Julia, and the sister of Nereus;
(4) Many were probably martyred including Amplias, Urbanus, Stachys, Aristobulus, Herodion, Tryphena and Tryphosa, Rufus, Asyncritus, Phlegon, Patrobas, Hermas, and Philologus
Circumcision (Luke 1) - From the Latin "to cut around". Cutting the male foreskin was widely practised throughout the Middle East to mark the transition from child to man. With the Jews, it was performed when boys were only eight days old as an outward sign they belonged to God and had become members of his chosen people. Older converts were circumcised no matter what their age. The custom was introduced in Abraham's time - Genesis 17:10 - as a sign of God's covenant, or agreement with Abraham, that he would be the "father of many nations"
Citizens, Roman - see Roman citizens
Claudia - see Pudens, Claudia & Linus
Claudius, Emperor (Acts 18) - Ruled Rome from AD41-54. He decreed in c AD50 that Jewish agitators, stirred up by "Chrestus" (Christ) should be expelled from Rome. This is confirmed by the Roman historians Dio Cassius and Suetonius; see also Rome, Emperor's of
Codex - Any ancient manuscript cut and assembled to open up as a conventional book; plural "codices". See also Codex Alexandricus; Codex Sinaiticus; Codex Vaticanus.
Codex Alexandricus (A) - 5th cen, entire Greek Bible with some leaves missing. Written in Alexandria. Later presented by Patriarch of Constantinople to Charles 1 of England in 1627. Now in British Library, London. See also Codex.
Codex Sinaiticus (aleph) - 4th/5th cen, entire New Testament and parts of Old, all in Greek. Written in Alexandria. Found 1844-59 by German scholar Tischendorf at St Catherine's Monastery near Mount Sinai, Egypt. Went to Russia, bought from the Soviet Union by Britain in 1933. Now in British Library, London. See also Codex.
Codex Vaticanus (B) - 4th cen, almost entire Holy Bible in Greek with New Testament missing beyond Hebrews 9:14. Written in Alexandria, Egypt. In the Vatican Library since 1481. See also Codex.
Corinth (Acts 18) - The original Corinth is near modern Corinth in southern Greece. An ancient Greek city, and chief town of the Roman province of Achaia, it was at this time governed by proconsul Gallio. Located near the narrow strip of land separating the Adriatic from the Aegean Seas, and through which ran the north-south highway linking the rest of Greece with the southern Peloponnesus, Corinth was a vital centre of commerce. A cosmopolitan city with the temple of Aphrodite - goddess of love and fertility - and with two nearby ports including Cenchrea, Corinth was well known for its sexual immorality.
Covenant (Hebrews 8) - A "treaty" between God and his people. In the Old Testament, God's most important covenant was at Sinai, where he gave his chosen people the Law and called on Israel to be a holy nation. In the New Testament the covenant is God's gift of his son to both Jew and Gentile, and the call is for all people to believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour.
Crispus (Acts 18) - Later identified by Paul in 1 Corinthians 1:14 as one of the few people he personally baptised in Corinth.
Crispus (1 Corinthians 1) - He is identified in Acts 18:8 as the synagogue leader in Corinth.
Cyrenius (or Quirinius; Luke 2) - governor of Syria when the first Roman census of Judea took place. But this was in AD6 when Judea was incorporated into Syria after the removal of Archelaus the Jewish ethnarch. As Luke is generally a careful historian, various reasons for this discrepancy have been proposed. One is that Cyrenius held another office in Syria at this earlier date, and that Herod the Great (who died 4BC) had been ordered by his Roman masters to hold a census in Judea.
Damaris - see Dionysius & Damaris
Damascus (Acts 9) - Capital of modern Syria. "The Pearl of the East", an ancient and important city of Syria, standing at over 2,000 feet in a large oasis. One of the city-states of The Decapolis, and a great centre of trade
Deacons (Acts 6) - From the Greek for "servant". Members of the Church chosen to look after the charitable needs of the early Christians. The position later developed into a responsibility for other practical needs of the Church. The first use of the actual title of deacon is in Philippians 1:1
Dead Sea Scrolls - The first Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered around Qumran in Israel in 1947; others further south of Qumran. These Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts and parts of the Old Testament, dating from the time of Jesus, are more than 1,000 years older than any previously known manuscripts. Until then, the earliest Hebrew documents in existence were 9th century AD copies of the Pentateuch. The Dead Sea Scrolls helped to confirm just how accurate the translations of the Jewish Bible have been over the centuries.
Demas (Colossians 4) - As one of Paul's prison companions, he is also included in the greetings to Philemon in Colossae (Philemon 24). However, by the time Paul is back in prison in Rome awaiting execution in c AD67, Demas has left him "for the world" and gone to Thessalonica (2 Timothy 4:10).
Demetrius (Acts 19) - The name appears twice in the New Testament:
(1) This Demetrius, the silversmith of Ephesus;
(2) Another Demetrius, commended in the Third Letter of John sent from Ephesus to Gaius towards the end of the 1st century (3 John 12)
Devil, The (or Satan) (Matt 4) - "The devil" from the Greek "to slander"; "Satan" from the Hebrew for "adversary", "to oppose", "to plot against". The supreme person and spirit of evil
Didymus, Thomas - see Thomas the apostle
Dionysius & Damaris (Acts 17) - After Paul's visit to Athens, no more is heard of them in the New Testament. Traditionally, Damaris was the wife of Dionysius, and he became the first bishop of Athens.
Disciple (Matt 4) - From the Latin "to learn". Those who followed Jesus of Nazareth, and eventually believed in him as the Christ. Especially one of the twelve apostles
Drusilla - see Herod Family
Elders (Acts 11) - From the Old English "old". A title found throughout the Old Testament, and also in the New Testament Gospels and Acts of the Apostles to describe Jewish religious officials. Here it is used for the first time for leaders in the early Christian Church. Later in Acts, and in the Letters of 1 Timothy, Titus, James, and 1 Peter, it refers to those who both taught and preached. Elders are also referred to as "presbyters" - Greek for "elder". The title probably evolved into that of priest or pastor in the church. The Book of Revelations also refers to elders in the Kingdom of Heaven.
Emperor's of Rome - see Rome, Emperor's of
Epaphras (Colossians 1) - He established the churches in Colossae, Laodicea and Hieropolis (Colossians 4:12-13), and is now visiting Paul in prison to report on the progress of the churches in the Colossian area. In Philemon, verse 23, Paul confirms that Epaphras is staying in Rome as his fellow-prisoner or companion
Epaphroditus (Philippians 2) - Not to be confused with Epaphras in the Letter to the Colossians in Asia Minor Colossians 1:7). This Epaphroditus has been sent by the Philippian church in Macedonia with gifts for Paul in Rome (Philippians 4:18). After recovering from his illness, he is now returning to Philippi with Paul's Letter.
Ephesus (Acts 19) - South of modern Izmir or Smyrna in Western Turkey, and at that time capital of the Roman province of Asia. One of the three greatest cities of the eastern Mediterranean with a population of perhaps 250,000 - the other two being Alexandria in Egypt and Syrian Antioch, Ephesus was an important port with good access to the interior of Asia Minor. As a centre for the worship of Artemis or Diana - the Asian goddess of fertility, her temple was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The great theatre could hold 25,000 people
Erastus (Acts 19) - The name appears three times in the New Testament, and may all refer to the same man:
(1) In Acts 19, Erastus, who is in Ephesus at the end of Paul's long stay there. He now goes with Timothy to Macedonia in advance of Paul. The visits to Macedonia and on to Achaia (including Corinth) were probably to collect gifts for the church in Jerusalem;
(2) Erastus, town clerk of Corinth, included in Paul's greetings from the Christians in Corinth to the Romans, one or two years later in c AD57/58 (Romans 16:23). This Erastus is possibly the same man Paul sent from Ephesus to Macedonia in c AD56/57 (Acts 19:22 above). Then ten years later as Paul awaits execution in Rome, he tells Matthew that Erastus is staying on at Corinth (2 Timothy 4:20)
(3) While Paul was in prison in Rome before his execution in c AD67, he notes that Erastus stayed on at Corinth (2 Timothy 4:20).
Ethnarch - Roman-appointed Jewish king or ruler of Palestine. See also Palestine; tetrarch
Eunice (Acts 15) - 2 Timothy 1:5 identifies Eunice as Timothy's mother, and Lois as his grandmother
Euodias (Euodia) & Syntache (Philippians 4) - Both women probably held office, perhaps as deaconesses, in this the first church established by Paul in Europe. The first member was also a woman - Lydia.
Faith - Trust or confidence, especially in God; belief in the truth of revealed religion.
Felix, Antonius - see Judea, Governor's of
Festus, Porcius - see Judea, Governor's of
Gadara - see Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes
Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes (Matt 8) - The different Gospels and various versions of the Bible place this incident in the region of the Gadarenes, the Gerasenes, and the Gergesenes:
(1) The town of Gadara was a few miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee in the Gentile Decapolis. The region of the Gadarenes may well have spread beyond the town to the shoreside;
(2) Gerasa, also in the Decapolis, but much further away, some 30 miles (50 km) from the Sea of Galilee; and
(3) Only Gergesa was on the actual shoreside in the territory of Gaulanitis - the modern Syrian Golan (Heights).
Gaius (Acts 19) - The name appears five times, referring to three or four different men:
(1) Gaius (Acts 19), linked with Aristarchus as a fellow Macedonian;
(2) Gaius from Derbe, one of Paul's companions taking gifts to Jerusalem a few months later. On that occasion, Aristarchus is not linked with this Gaius, but with Secundus as the "two Thessalonians" (Acts 20:4).
If, as in some ancient texts, Doberus in Macedonia should be read for Derbe (in Asia Minor), then they may be the same man;
(3) Gaius, whom Paul remembers baptising in Corinth four or five years earlier as he writes his First Letter to the Corinthians (1:14);
(4) Gaius, Paul's host in Corinth, included in the greetings from Corinth to the church in Rome (Romans 16:23).
Gaius (3) and (4) are probably the same man;
(5) Gaius who receives the Third Letter from John. A rich man who lived in the Ephesus area towards the end of the century (3 John 1)
Galatia (Acts 13) - A large Roman province in Asia Minor, extending almost from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean through the mountains and plains of modern central Turkey. Settled by Gauls from central Asia in the 3rd century BC, Galatia included the Phrygian town of Pisidian Antioch; not to be confused with Syrian Antioch:
Gallio (Acts 18) - The Roman governor or proconsul of the Greek province of Achaia, was appointed by the emperor Claudius in c AD51 or 52. As Gallio's appointment was included in an inscription discovered in Greece in 1905, this is an important event in Paul's travels, one of the few that can be dated with any real accuracy. Gallio's brother was the famous Stoic philosopher Seneca, tutor to the emperor Nero who reigned AD54-68
Gamaliel (Acts 5) - Known as the Elder, was a grandson of Hillel, both renowned as Jewish scholars and experts in the Law. Gamaliel represented the more liberal Pharisee tradition compared with the traditional Sadducees. The apostle Paul, in his defence before the crowd in Jerusalem in c AD58 discloses he was trained by Gamaliel (Acts 22:3)
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1, Luke 3) - His two lines of ancestry differ considerably in part, although there are also important similarities. Thus both Matthew and Luke record the descent of Jesus from the patriarch Abraham through King David. Luke then goes further back into Bible history to show that Jesus was a "son of Adam"
Many and varied reasons have been given for the differences in recorded ancestry after King David, none of which are wholly satisfactory. But as the differences are so obvious, and Luke is generally regarded as reliable, the two genealogies have been recorded by the two Gospel writers for no doubt very good reasons. These just happen to escape modern analysis. However it is helpful to know that father can mean "ancestor of", and son, "descended from". There are many points of note, but one of the most interesting concerns the few women listed - just four. All are Gentile, and not one a model of Jewish virtue
Tamar - probably a Canaanite, an adulterous and scheming daughter-in-law of Judah;
Rahab - a Canaanite and a prostitute of Jericho who helped the Hebrew spies;
Ruth - from Moab, who schemed more subtly than Tamar, and married Boaz; and
Bathsheba - possibly a Hittite, who committed adultery with King David. He then had her husband Uriah, killed in battle.
Much information can be found in the Old Testament on many of the men, and the women listed in the genealogies.
Gentiles (Luke 2) - Latin for "family", "nation", "clan". A Jewish term for all non-Jews
Gerasa - see Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes
Gerasenes - see Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes
Gergesa - see Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes
Gergesenes - see Gadarenes, Gerasenes, Gergesenes
Gloria, The (Luke 2) - "Glory to God in the highest Heaven! Peace upon earth among men of goodwill!" (Luke 2:14, a hymn of praise in prayer-books, known as "The Gloria in Excelsis Deo" - "Glory be to God in the Highest")
Gold, Incense, Myrrh (Matt 2) - Traditionally gold for a King; incense or frankincense for God or the Son of God; and myrrh, an aromatic gum-resin used in embalming and as a painkiller, to represent mortal man and the eventual death of Jesus
Golgotha - see Place of the Skull
Governor's of Judea - see Judea, Governor's of
Gutenberg Bible - The first printed Bible was the Latin Vulgate printed by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany c 1452
Herod Agrippa I - see Herod Family
Herod Agrippa II - see Herod Family
Herodias - see Herod Family
Herod Antipas - see Herod Family
Herod Family, The (Luke 3) - Four generations of the Herod family - the "Herod" dynasty, ruled various parts of Palestine under Roman control. They played important parts in the life and death of Jesus, as well as during the growth of the early Church. Most of the information about them comes from the Jewish historian Josephus:
Members of the Herod Family
Note: Not all the family members shown here are named in the New Testament
Herod the Great, "king of the Jews" 37-4BC. Ruler of Samaria and Judea, Galilee and Perea, Iturea and Trachonitis. He had many wives and children, some of whom he murdered in his later years. It was this Herod the wise men visited when searching for the new-born Jesus;
Includes five of the sons of Herod the Great by four of his ten wives:
Aristobulus, mother Mariamne I, who was murdered by his father in 7BC. His son, Agrippa I later ruled the same territories as Herod the Great. Aristobulus' daughter was Herodias;
Philip, mother Mariamne II, a private citizen who married his niece Herodias. Their daughter was Salome;
Archelaus, mother Malthace, ethnarch of Samaria and Judea, 4BC-AD6. He was deposed partly because of his brutality. The territories reverted to the rule of Roman procurators until AD41;
Herod Antipas, mother Malthace, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea 4BC-AD39. His first wife was the daughter of King Aretas of Nabatea. It was this Aretas who ruled Damascus at the time the apostle Paul escaped in a basket (2 Corinthians 11:32).
Antipas later married his niece Herodias after she left his half-brother Philip and taken her daughter Salome with her. It was criticism of this marriage that led Antipas to arrest John the Baptist. In c AD30 Herod Antipas took part in the trial of Jesus;
Philip the tetrarch, mother Cleopatra of Jerusalem, tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis 4BC-AD34. He married his great niece Salome;
The children of Aristobulus included:
Herodias, originally married to her uncle Philip, then married uncle Herod Antipas. It was her daughter Salome who asked Antipas for the head of John the Baptist, c AD29;
Herod Agrippa I, king of the Jews, AD37-44. By AD41 he ruled the same territories as his grandfather, Herod the Great. Agrippa I had the apostle James, son of Zebedee executed, and arrested the apostle Peter;
The children of Herod Agrippa I:
Herod Agrippa II was too young to succeed his dead father in AD44, and instead made king of Chalcis in AD50. In AD53 he exchanged this small territory for parts of Galilee and Perea, and Iturea and Trachonitis. He was present at the trial of Paul in Caesarea, c AD60. Siding with the Romans, he survived the Jewish war and died in Rome, c AD100, the last of the Herods;
Bernice - she and her brother Agrippa II had a close, possibly incestuous relationship;
Drusilla married Felix, procurator of Jude Both she and Bernice were present at Paul's trial -
Herod's party (or Herodians) (Mark 3) - A political, not a religious party; supporters of the Herod dynasty. In the time of Jesus' ministry, this included Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, and Philip, tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis.
Herod the Great - see Herod Family
High Priest (Luke 3) - "Priest" from the Greek "presbyter" for an "elder". The head of the Jewish religious, and in earlier times, the civil nation, president of the Sanhedrin or council, and based in the Jerusalem Temple. They were usually appointed from the aristocratic Sadducees by the ruling Herod family, and from AD6-41 directly by the Romans. They included:
AD6-15 - Annas (Luke 3), who was actually deposed in AD15, but continued to rule indirectly through five of his sons and one of his son-in-laws for many years;
AD15-18 - A number of sons of Annas;
AD18-37 - Caiaphas (Luke 3), son-in-law of Annas. He took part in the trial of Jesus, in the questioning of Peter and the apostles after Pentecost, and probably prepared letters allowing Saul (later the apostle Paul) to persecute the Christians in Damascus. Even though Caiaphas had been in his position for many years, Annas exerted such influence he was still considered a "High Priest". Caiaphas was succeeded by another of Annas' sons;
AD37-47 - Various high priests;
AD47-59 - Ananias, the high priest who took part in the trials of Paul after his arrest in Jerusalem. Ananias was later killed in the Jewish War by Jewish Zealots
Holy - Perfect in a moral sense; pure in heart.
Holy of holies (Hebrews 9) - The Jerusalem Temple had a curtain in front of the holy of holies through which the High Priest passed once a year. When Jesus died on the cross, the Temple curtain was torn in two (Matthew 27:51) symbolising that everyone can now approach God directly through Jesus Christ at any time, and not just through the High Priest once a year.
Hymenaeus (1 Timothy 1) - A false teacher, probably from Ephesus where Timothy was then working. In 2 Timothy 2:17, Hymenaeus is again condemned by Paul, this time in association with a man named Philetus.
Incense (Matt 2) - see Gold, Incense, Myrrh
Israel and Judah, Kings of the United Kingdom of c 1,000BC (Matt 1) - King David (1 Samuel 16-31; 2 Samuel 1-24; 1 Kings 1-2), Solomon (2 Samuel 11-12; 1 Kings 1-11; 1 Chronicles 22-23, 28-29; 2 Chronicles 1-9).
Israel, Outline history of - At the time of the Roman Empire, [1 - Map below] Judea was a small eastern province. Approximately 1,800 years earlier, the patriarch Abraham journeyed there from  Ur of the Chaldees (present-day Iraq), via  Haran to  Canaan. Abraham was the father of Isaac, and grandfather of Jacob. Jacob's children migrated to Egypt where their younger brother Joseph ("of the coat of many colours") previously sold by them into slavery, had become only second in importance to the Egyptian Pharaoh. Jacob's descendants became the twelve tribes of Israel.
Around 1,200BC, following the Exodus from  Egypt led by Moses and completed by Joshua (of the "battle of Jericho"), Canaan was the "promised land" of the twelve . Tribes of Israel After c 1,000BC, by which time King David and his son Solomon had established a , United Kingdom of Israel and Judah both nations went their separate ways until conquered by other empires.
In c 721BC,  Israel was defeated by the [8+] Assyrians and these Jews went into permanent exile. Then in c 587BC,  Judah fell into the hands of the [9+] Babylonians, but their exile to  Babylon was temporary. The Babylonians were conquered by the  Persians and the Jews allowed to return to Judea to rebuild  Jerusalem.
By the time of Jesus, most Jews were spread throughout the  Roman and Parthian Empires, but Jerusalem with a new Temple being built by Herod the Great remained central to the Jewish religion. Jesus of  Nazareth in Galilee was therefore born a Jew, into nearly 2,000 years of Jewish history, religion and culture in the land of Palestine.
Italian Regiment (Acts 10) - Compared with other locally-raised units of the Roman army, the Italian Regiment or "cohort" was probably recruited in Italy to serve as bodyguard to the procurator of Judea. His headquarters would have been in Caesarea. At this time, or some time before, the procurator was Pontius Pilate, dismissed in AD36
Jacob (John 4, but Old Testament) - Or Israel, grandson of the patriarch Abraham and ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel. His son Joseph - of the "coat of many colours" - was sold into captivity in Egypt and became only second in importance to the Pharaoh during the seven year famine
James (Hebrew, Jacobus) (Matt 13) - Four or five James' appear in the New Testament:
(1) The apostle James, son of Zebedee. See also James the apostle following;
(2) The apostle James, son of Alphaeus (see also James the apostle following), who is possibly the same as:
(3) James, son of Clopas and the Mary who was present at the crucifixion. "Clopas", "Cleophas" or "Cleopas" may be the same person as the Aramaic "Alphaeus";
(4) James, father of the apostle Judas (Luke 6:16) - not Judas Iscariot; and
(5) James (Matt 13) , the brother of Jesus, who in the Acts of the apostles becomes a leader of the church in Jerusalem after Jesus' resurrection. Also author of the Letter of James.
James the apostle - Son of Zebeddee, a fisherman. During the persecutions of Herod Agrippa I, King of the Jews, in c AD44, the apostle James was beheaded. "It was at this time (of great famine, possibly around AD44) that King Herod laid violent hands on some of the Church members. James, John's brother, he executed with the sword ....." (Acts 12:1-2) . Before his death, James the Greater as he is known to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus, preached in Jerusalem and Judea, modern Israel. A later Spanish tradition is that James preached the Gospel there sometime before his death.
James the apostle, son of Alphaeus - Known as James the Less, to distinguish him from James the Greater, son of Zebedee, but more likely because of his smaller stature than his relative importance. He, and Jude following, should not be confused with James and Jude (or Judas), the brothers of Jesus. Most commentators treat them as separate sets of brothers. Tradition claims he first worked in Palestine (Israel) before preaching and martyrdom in Egypt.
Jason (Acts 17) - Two Jason's appear in the New Testament. Paul's host, the first in Thessalonica whose house is attacked and himself arrested. Then in Romans 16:21, Paul includes greetings from a Jason, presumably in Corinth to the church at Rome. These may well be the same man.
Jason (Romans 16) - A second Jewish Christian in Romans 16 (the first was Lucius). This Jason was Paul's host during his troublesome stay in Thessalonica (Acts 17:5). This may be the same man, now in Corinth.
Jesus, Brothers of - see Brothers of Jesus
Jesus, Genealogy - see Genealogy of Jesus
Jewish Bible - The Books of the "Law and Prophets" and the "Writings" of Judaism that also became the Christian Old Testament. Most were originally written in Hebrew with some parts in Aramaic.
Jewish people - see anti-Semitism
Joanna (Luke 8) - The Gospel of Jesus obviously reached Herod's royal household at an early stage. Here, in Luke's Gospel, Joanna is married to Herod Antipas' agent. Luke also reports in Acts 13:1 that Manaen, a leader of the church in Syrian Antioch, had been a foster-brother of the same Antipas
John (Hebrew Johannes; Luke 1) - Five John's appear in the New Testament:
In the Gospels:
John (Luke 1), later the Baptist, and the baptiser of Jesus;
The apostle John, son of Zebedee who is traditionally the same man as the disciple "whom Jesus loved" in John's Gospel; the author of John's Gospel; the writer of the First Letter of John; the Elder, writer of the Second and Third Letters of John; and St. John the Divine, author of the Book of Revelations - see John the apostle;
Jonah or John, father of the apostle Peter.
In the Acts of the Apostles:
John, a member of the Jewish council or Sanhedrin; and
John Mark, author of Mark's Gospel, first introduced by name in Acts 12 - see John Mark
John Mark or Mark (Acts 12) - The "interpreter" of the apostle Peter and author of Mark's Gospel. Also possibly the young man who ran naked from Gethsemane when Jesus was arrested (Mark 14:51). His mother Mary's house was traditionally where the Last Supper was held, where the disciples waited for the Holy Spirit before Pentecost, and thereafter a centre of worship. Barnabas was his cousin (Colossians 4:10).
When Barnabas and Paul returned to Syrian Antioch from their famine relief journey to Jerusalem, they took John Mark with them (Acts 12:25). He was their assistant at the start of the First Missionary Journey (Acts 13:5), travelling through Cyprus and sailing across to Perga. There Mark left them and returned to Jerusalem (Acts 13:13). By the time Paul and Barnabas were ready for the Second Journey (Acts 15:36), Paul would not take Mark because of his "desertion". Barnabas instead took Mark on a mission to his home island of Cyprus.
Over the next 12 years, Paul and Mark were reconciled. By the time of Paul's Rome imprisonment, c AD61-63, Mark is with him, and apparently ready to visit Colossae (Colossians 4:10), and is included in the greetings from Rome to Philemon (v24). He appears at the end of Paul's life in c AD67, when in the Second Letter to Timothy (4:11) in Ephesus, Paul asks Timothy to bring Mark to Rome.
The apostle Peter, having seemingly reached Rome at this time or earlier (c AD64), refers in the greetings in his First Letter (5:13), to Mark as his (spiritual) son
John the apostle - Brother of James and son of Zebedee, a fisherman. According to John's Gospel (19:26-27), it was probably John who took Mary, the mother of Jesus as his adopted mother. He preached in Jerusalem, and later, as bishop of Ephesus, south of Izmir in western Turkey, worked among the churches of Asia Minor. During the reigns of either Emperor Nero (AD54-68) or Domitian (AD81-96), he was banished to the nearby island of Patmos, now one of the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. He was subsequently freed and died a natural death at Ephesus c AD100. After decades of debate, many scholars accept that the apostle John wrote the Book of Revelation, perhaps as early as c AD68-70, and that he either wrote or provided the material and theology for John's Gospel and the three Letters of John.
Joseph (or Joses; Matt 13) - Six Josephs appear:
(1) Joseph, husband of Mary and father of Jesus;
(2) Joseph (Matt 13; or Joses), brother of Jesus;
(3) Joseph (or Joses), brother of the apostle James, son of Alphaeus;
(4) Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin who placed the body of Jesus in his own tomb; and
In the Acts of the Apostles:
(5) Joseph Barsabas, one of the two disciples short-listed to replace the dead Judas Iscariot as the twelfth apostle;
(6) Joseph the Levite from Cyprus, the original name of Barnabas who travelled with Paul on his First Missionary Journey.
Judah, Kings of (Matt 1) - Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joram (or Jehoram), Ahaziah, Joash, Amaziah, Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, King Jehoiakim, Jechoniah (or Jehoiachin). The lives of the Kings of Judah - and of Israel, can be found in 1 Kings 12-22, 2 Kings 1-25, and 2 Chronicles 10-36. When Jechoniah was taken captive to Babylon (c 587BC), his uncle, Zedekiah, was appointed last King of Judah
Judas (or Jude - Hebrew, Judah) - Six Judas':
(1) Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus;
(2) The apostle Judas (or Thaddaeus), son of James;
(3) Judas (Matt 13; or Jude), brother of Jesus and traditionally author of the Letter of Jude; and
In the Acts of the Apostles:
(4) Judas of Galilee who led a Jewish rebellion in AD6;
(5) Judas of Damascus, in whose house the blinded Saul (the apostle Paul) stayed after Jesus had appeared to him in c AD34; and
(6) Judas Barsabbas, a prominent member of the church in Jerusalem who travelled with Paul to Syrian Antioch after the Council at Jerusalem in c AD49. See also Judas Barsabbas following.
Jude the apostle - Also Thaddaeus. Jude is confused in some sources with Jude, one of the brothers of Jesus. He may have preached in Assyria (eastern Iraq) and Persia (Iran), before joining with Simon the Zealot and being killed with him in Persia.
Judas Barsabbas (Acts 15) - He should not be confused with Joseph or Justus Barsabbas, one of the two disciples short-listed as the new twelfth apostle (Acts 1:23) nearly 20 years earlier;
Judea, Governor's of (Luke 3) - Roman "procurators" ruled the territories of Samaria, Judea and Idumea, except for the few occasions when Rome appointed members of the Herod family:
4BC-AD6 - Herod Archelaus, deposed in AD6, when Judea and Samaria were annexed to Roman Syria;
AD6-26 - a number of Roman procurators;
c AD26-36 - Pontius Pilate (Luke 3), fifth Roman procurator, during the ministry, death and resurrection of Jesus;
AD36-41 - Roman procurators;
AD41-44 - Herod Agrippa I;
AD44-52 - Roman procurators;
c AD53-60 - Antonius Felix, Roman procurator during the arrest of Paul in Jerusalem and his imprisonment in Caesarea;
c AD60-62 - Porcius Festus, Roman procurator. Soon after his appointment he held the trial of Paul in Caesarea, during which Paul "appealed to Caesar" and was sent to Rome to stand trial
Justification - The doctrine that men are made just, proved or shown to be just and right, vindicated, absolved, by faith in Jesus Christ, not by what they do.
Justus (Acts 1) - Three men with this surname appear in the New Testament:
In the Acts of the Apostles:
(1) Joseph Barsabbas or Justus (Acts 1) ;
(2) Titius Justus, a Gentile, whose home in Corinth Paul stayed in after he was forced out of the synagogue c AD52. Titius is only mentioned the one time in Acts 18; and
In the Letter to the Colossians:
(3) Jesus Justus, a Jewish Christian and companion of Paul during his imprisonment in Rome, c AD61-63
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